Poverty as a Challenge Chapter 3 of Economics Class 9 Textual Question Answer of CBSE NCERT Book for prepare your Notebook.
Class 9 Economics Chapter 3 Question Answer
Q. 1 Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India?
Following are the two methods by which poverty line is estimated in India.
- Income method: Under income method, a minimum per capita income is fixed like in 1999-2000, the income was fixed at Rs. 328 per capita per month, and in urban areas it was Rs. 454. If any family has less than the fixed income, it is considered as below the poverty line. this method is used to distribute food at subsidised price through PDS.
- Expenditure method: under this method the minimum nutritional food requirement for survival is estimated. The total minimum food requirement is is firstly measured in calories. The calories is then converted into money value. minimum amount which is required for clothes and other requirements is added to the money value of food. Which total amount is considered as poverty line. all the families which spend less than the poverty line are considered as below the poverty line families. In India, the daily minimum nutritional requirement for a person has been fixed at 2400 calories in rural areas comma and 2100 calories in urban areas.
Q. 2 Do you you think that the present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?
No, the present methodology of poverty estimation is not appropriate. It is only quantitative concept. it captures only by a limited part of what poverty really mean to the people. it is about a minimum subsistence level of living rather than a reasonable level of living. Many economists advocate that we must broaden the concept into human poverty. the other aspects like education, health, job, self confidence, equality etc. Should also be included while calculating poverty. So, we can say that the present methodology of poverty estimation is not very appropriate.
Q. 3 Describe the poverty trends in India since 1973.
|Poverty Ratio ( % )||Number of Poor|
it is clear from the above table that there is substantial decline in poverty ratio in India from about 55% in 1973 to 36% in 1933. the proportion of people below poverty line further came down to about 26% in 2000. if the trend continues, people below poverty line may come down to less than 20% in the next few years.
Q. 4 Discuss the major reason for poverty in India.
There are many reasons for poverty in India.
- one historical reason is the low level of economic development under the British colonial administration. The policies of the colonial government ruined traditional handcrafts and discouraged development of industries like textile.
- with the spread of irrigation and the green revolution many job opportunities were created in the agriculture sector. But the effects were limited to some parts of India.
- Another reason of high poverty rate has been the huge income inequalities. One of the major reason for this is the unequal distribution of land and other resources.
Q. 5 Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India.
Social groups are scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households.
Economic groups are rural agricultural labour household and the urban casual labour households.
Q. 6 Give an account of the inter-state disparities in poverty in India.
Poverty in India also has another aspect dimension. The proportion of poor people is not the same in every state of India. There has been significant decline in poverty since independence. but although there has been reduction in poverty, the success rate of reducing poverty varies from state to state.
- States with poverty ratio more than the national average: Assam, Bihar, Orissa, U.P and Tripura are the most poverty ridden states of India. The poverty ratio in these States is much higher than the national average. Bihar and Orissa are the poorest States with poverty ratio of 43 and 47 respectively.
- States with low poverty ratio: Haryana, Punjab, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, and J&K I have very low percentage of population living below the poverty line.
- States with poverty ratio less than the national average: There has been a significant decline in poverty ratio in Tamilnadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and West Bengal. Recent studies showed that in 20 States and union territories, the poverty ratio is less than the national average.
Q. 7 Describe global poverty trends.
- Fall in global poverty: The World Bank defines poverty as living on less than $1 per day. There has been a substantial reduction in global poverty. It has fallen from 28 % in 1990 to 21% in 2001.
- Regional variation: Although there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty, it is with great regional variation. Poverty declined substantially in China in South East Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resources development. But the pace of reduction of poverty in South Asian countries is very slow.
- Poverty in India: Poverty in India has also declined, but the pace of reduction is very slow. According to World Bank definition 35.3 percent of total population is still living below the poverty line.
- Poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: In sub-Saharan Africa, poverty in fact Rose from 41 % in 1981 to 46% in 2001. Sub Sahara includes Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, China etc.
- Poverty in Russia: The poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia, where officially. It was note existent earlier.
Q. 8 Describe current government strategy of poverty alleviation.
The current anti-poverty strategy of the government is based broadly on many schemes and programmes. Some of them have been mentioned ahead.
- National food for work programme ( NEWP )- This program was launched in 2004 in 150 most backward districts of country. the program is open to all rural poor who are in need of wages employment and desire to do manual unskilled work.
- Prime minister rozgar Yojana ( PMRY ) – This scheme was started in 1993. it AIMS at creating self employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns.
- Rural employment generation programme (REGP )- It was launched in 1995. it AIMS at creating self employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns.
Q. 9 Answer the following questions briefly:
- What do you understand by human poverty?
- Who are the poorest of the poor?
- What are the main features of National rural employment guarantee act 2005?
- human poverty is an inefficiency to get minimum basic needs such as food, clothes and shelter.
- Apart from the social groups, there is also inequality of incomes within a family, all suffer, but some suffer more than others. Women, elderly people and female infants are systematically denied equal access to resources available to the family. therefore, women, children and old people are the poorest of the poor.
- The NREGA 2005 was passed in September 2005.
Here are some main features of NREGA 2005.
- The act provides 100 days issued employment to every rural household in 200 district.
- The central government will also established National employment guarantee funds.
- Later, the scheme will be extended to 600 districts. One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women.
- Under the Programme, if an applicant is not Provided Employment within 15 days, he/she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.