Food Security in India Chapter 4 of Economics Class 9 Textual Question Answer of CBSE NCERT Book for prepare your Notebook.
Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Question Answer
Q. 1 How is food security ensured in India?
Food security in India has two components:
- Buffer stock: Buffer stock is the stock of food grains, namely wheat and rice produced by the government through food corporation of India. The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in States where there is surplus production. The purchased food grains are stored in granaries. This is done to distribute food grains in the deficit areas and among the poor strata of society at a price lower than the market price also known as issue price. This also helps in resolving the problem of shortage of food during address weather conditions during the period of calamity.
- Public distribution system: The food produced by the FCI is distributed through government regulated ration shops among the poorer section of the society. This is called the public distribution system.
Q. 2 Which are the people more prone to food insecurity?
- the scheduled caste, scheduled Tribes and some sections of the OBC who have either poor land bare or very low land productivity are prone to food insecurity.
- the people affected by natural disaster, who have to migrate to other areas in search of work, are also among the most food insecure people.
- a large proportion of pregnant and nursing mothers and children under the age of 5 years constitutes an important segment of the food insecure population.
Q. 3 Which states are most food insecure in India?
States which are more food insecure in India are eastern and South eastern parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
Q. 4 Do you believe that green revolution has made India self sufficient in food grains? How?
Yes, green revolution has made India self sufficient in food grains:
- Increase in production: In India, after green revolution production of many crops has increased many time. the production of wheat was just 88 lakh tonnes in 1955-56. Now it has crossed 718 lakh tonnes.
- Control over imports: After Independence, India was dependent on other countries for its food grains requirement but now our import of food grain are negligible.
- Over flowing buffer stocks: The minimum buffer norms for FCI 24.3 million tonnes but due to the success of green revolution, the stock is much more than the minimum norms.
Q. 5 A section of people in India are still without food. Explain.
A section of people like SC, ST, OBC, people affected by natural disasters, women and children under the age of 5 years in India are still without food.
The main reason for this unfortunate is that many poor families do not even have enough money or income to buy food in other words, there is availability of food and accessibility to food ok, but poor families do not have affordability to food.
Q. 6 What happens to the supply of food where there is a disaster or a calamity?
- During the disaster or calamity food supply is adversely affected.
- During the disaster or calamity like earthquake, road, flood, Tsunami etc. There is widespread failure of crops. This adversely affect food production.
- During the disaster or calamity the price goes up.
- Black marketing and hoarding is also one of the major factor responsible for high price rise during any calamity.
- during any kind of calamity what disaster happens in a very widespread area or is stretched over a long period of time, it may cause a situation of starvation.
Q. 7 Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger.
Seasonal hunger is related to cycles of food growing and harvesting. This is prevalent in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities and and in urban areas because of casual labours. Which type of hunger exist when a person is unable to get work for the entire year.
On the other hand chronic hunger is a consequence of diets persistently in adequate in terms of quantity or quality. poor people suffer from chronic hunger because of their very low income and in turn inability to buy food even for survival.
Q. 8 What has our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government.
our government has done a lot to provide food security to the poor by launching various skin such as buffer stock, PDF, antyodaya Anna Yojana and Annapurna scheme. following are the two schemes launched by the government to provide food security to the poor.
- Public distribution system: The food produced by the FCI is distributed through government-regulated ration shops section of the society which is known as PDS. This scheme was launched in 1992.
- Antyodaya Anna Yojana: This scheme was launched in 2004 the poorest ok the poor by providing them food grains up to 35 kilogram at lowest rate, Wheat Rs. 2 /K and rice at Rs. 3 / Kg.
Q. 9 Why is a buffer stock created by the government?
Ahead are the main reasons for why is buffer stock created by the government:
- Food security: Buffer stocks are created by the government for food security. the main aim of the buffer stock is to distribute the food grains in the deficit areas and among the poorest strata of society at a price lower than the market price.
- Calamity or disaster: The another objective of the buffer stock is to resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions during the period of calamity.
- Uninterrupted supply of food grains: The another objective of creative buffer stock is to maintain uninterrupted supply of food grains through India and throughout the year.
- To save farmer from the ups and downs of the market: The another objective of the buffer stock is to save the farmers from ups and downs of the market. Under this farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops. This price is declared by the government.
Q. 10 Write notes on:
- Minimum support price
- Buffer stock
- Issue price
- Fair price shops
- Minimum support price – When FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in States where there is surplus, production, the farmers are paid a pre announced price for their crops. This price is called minimum support price.
- Buffer Stock – It is the stock of foodgrains namely the wheat and rice produced by the government through food corporation of India.
- Issue price – food grains are distributed in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of the society at a price lower than the market price is known as issue price.
- Fair price shops – Ration shops are known as fair price shops which gets stock of food grains, sugar, kerosene oil for cooking. These items are sold to people at a price lower than the market price.
Q. 11 What are the problems of the functioning of ration shops?
Following are the main problems of the functioning of ration shops:
- public distribution system dealers are sometimes found resorting to malpractices like diverting the grains to open market to get better margin, selling poor quality grains at Ration shops, irregular opening of the shops etc
- Food adulteration is another big problem of ration shops.
- earlier every family, poor and nonpolar header rasan card with a fixed quota of items such as wheat, sugar, rice, pluses etc. but now with the introduction of three different cards the price for above the poverty line family is almost as high as open market price, so there is little incentive for them.
- It is common to find that ration shops regularly have unsold stocks of poor quality grains left. This has proved to be a big problem. When ration shops are unable to sell, a massive stock of food grains piles up with the FCI.
Q. 12 Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items.
The cooperative are playing an important role in food security in India. For example, out to all fair price shops running in Tamilnadu, around 94% are being run by the cooperatives. in Delhi, mother dairy is making strides in provision of milk and vegetables to consumer at controlled rates decided by the government of Delhi. Amul is another success story of co-operatives in milk and milk products from Gujarat. It has brought about the white revolution in the country.