Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development Question Answer for CBSE, HBSE and Other State Boards where NCERT Book is Followed. Question Answer PDF is Given after Question Answer.
Development Class 10 Economics Question Answer
Q. 1. Development of a country can generally be determined by
(i) its per capita income
(ii) its average literacy level
(iii) health status of its people
(iv) all the above.
Ans. (iv) all the above.
Q. 2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India ?
(ii) Sri Lanka
Ans. (ii) Sri Lanka
Q. 3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs. 5000. If the income of three families is Rs. 4000, Rs. 7000 and Rs. 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(i) Rs. 7500
(ii) Rs. 3000
(iii) Rs. 2000
Ans. (iv) 6000
Q. 4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries ? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any ?
Ans. Per capita income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries. In World Development Report 2006, brought out by the World Bank this criterion is used in classifying countries. Countries with per capita income of $ 10,066 per annum and above in 2004 are called rich countries and those with per capita income of $ 825 or less are called low-income countries. Hence per capita income is useful comparison, but it does not tell us how this income is distributed among people, It is as limitation of this criterion.
Q. 5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank ?
Ans. The following are the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank:
1. Longevity- Along and healthy life as measured in terms of life expectancy year
2. Knowledge – it is measured by the adult literacy rate. It is measured by education attainments percentage which combines gross enrolment ratio in primary, secondary and tertiary levels.
3. Decent Standard of Living- It is a choice to enjoy a quality and standard life. It is measured by Gross Domestic Product Per Capita.
Q6. Why do we use averages ? Are there any limitations to their use ? Illustrate with your own examples related to development ?
Ans. We use averages for comparison between countries and between states. Total income is not such a useful measure for comparison between countries, and status. Total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn. Hence we compare the average income which is the total income of the country divided by its total population. It is also called per capita income. While ‘averages’ are useful for comparison, but they also hide disparities. It does not tell us how the income is distributed among people. It a serious limitation to averages use.
Q. 7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking thanPunjab.Hence,per capita income is not a useful criterion at and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree ?
Ans. In Kerala, out of 1000 children born alive 11 died before completing one year o age but in Punjab the proportion of children dying within one year of birth is 49, whicl is nearly five times more. On the other hand, the per capita income of Punjab is muchm than Kerala. The reason is that money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well. So income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use. Kerala has a small Infant Mortality Rate because it has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.
Q. 8. Find out present sources of energy used by people in India. What could be possibilities fifty years from now ?
Ans. The following are the present sources of energy used by people in India:
(i) Animal waste (cow dung)
(ii) Agricultural waste
(vii) Natural Gas
After fifty years from now there will be shortage of these resources of energy. As result, countries will go for non-conventional sources of energy such as energy from wind, biomass energy, energy from wind, biomass energy, energy from tides and waves.
Q. 9. Why is issue of sustainability important for development ?
Ans. It means that development at present should not compromise on the needs of the future generation and it should take place without damaging the environment Sustainability of development is comparatively a new area of knowledge in which scientists economists, philosophers and other social scientists are working together. Thus the issue of sustainability is important for development.
Q. 10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development ? Discuss.
Ans. Earth has enough resources such as land, water, forests, climate, rainfall, minerals etc. These resources are freely rendered by nature. The importance of resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person. For example, to get more electricity, industrialists may want more dams. But this may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced such as tribes.
Q. 11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Ans. The following are the factors of environmental degradation.
- Mining. Mining chiefly open cast mining or surface mining leads to degradation Mining leads to abandonment of site or settlements, roads, factories which all lead to depletion of vegetation.
Mineral Processing-Like grinding of limestone, quarrying and crushing of stones raise dust in atmosphere leading to environment degradation.
Land fills-Industries dump many non-degradable toxic or radioactive wastes in land fills. These waste cause environment degradation.
Effluents-Industries release many effluents in water bodies or in atmosphere. These effluents cause pollution of various types.
Q. 12. For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
Ans. The following items given in table
- Per capita income-In this case Sri Lanka is at the top and Myanmar is at the bottom.
Life expectancy-In this case Sri Lanka is at the top and Myanmar is at the bottom.
Literacy Rate-In this case Sri Lanka is at the top and Bangladesh is at the bottom.
Gross enrolment ratio-In this case, Sri Lanka is at the top and Pakistan is at bottom.
HDI rank in the world-In this case Sri Lanka is at the top and Nepal is at the bottom.
Q. 13. The following Table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions :
(i) compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Can you guess why around 40 per cent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country ? Describe in your words.
Ans. (i) The nutritional level of people in Kerala is better than Madhya Pradesh as shown in Table.
(ii) Kerala has a better nutritional level because it has adequate provision of basic health and food facilities. But in some state, the public distribution system does not functions well ; i.e. ration shop does not function properly in such states. The people there are able to get the problem rectified. That is why health and nutritional status of people of such states is very poor.