NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 15 Short Notes with Important Definitions for Quickly Remember all Points in Class 10 Science and Score High in Exams. Our Website also Provide Class 10 Science Textual Question Answer and Important Questions for CBSE, HBSE, Mp Board, Up Board and Some other State Boards to Help Students in Better Score. NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 15 Our Environment notes with important points and definition for Quick remember for exams.
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Our Environment Class 10 Science Notes
- Different materials are cycled in the environment in separate biogeochemical cycles.
- In these cycles, essential nutrients change from one form to another. Enzymes are always specific in their action.
- Plastic can neither be decayed by micro-organisms nor by other dead organisms.
- Those substances which can be decayed by micro-organisms are called as biodegradable substances. And those which cannot be decayed are known as
- The organisms like plants, animals, micro-organisms, human beings and the physical surroundings intract with each other. They maintain a balance in nature. An eco-system consist of all biotic and abiotic components.
- Abiotic components comprise physical like heat, rain, air, minerals, etc.
- Forest, ponds and waterfalls are examples of natural ecosystem whereas garden and fields are man made artificial ecosystem.
- All green plants and blue-green algae are called producers because they trap sunlight and prepare their own food.
- All organisms directly or indirectly are dependent on producers for their survival.
- Those organisms which are dependent on producers for food are called as consumers.
- Consumers mainly are of three types-herbivores, carnivores or omnivores.
- Various organisms are linked together for their food requirements and forms a food chain. Each step of a food chain forms a trophic level.
- Autotrophs trap solar energy and transform it into chemical energy. The green plants in terrestrial eco-system capture about 1% of the energy of sunlight and convert it into food energy. Primary consumers change almost 10% of consumed food into organic matter.
- A food chain basically consists of three or four levels.
- The length and complexibility of food chains vary greatly.
- Instead of a straight line food chain, a branched relationship is developed. This branched chain forms a web called as food web.
- Many chemicals mix with soil and enter water bodies and becomes part of food chain.
- Non-biodegradable substances accumulate in our body which is called as Bio magnification.
- Ozone layer protects us from ultraviolet rays coming from sun towards earth.
- At higher levels of atmosphere ozone (O3) is a product of UV radiation acting on oxygen (O2) molecule.
- Chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are responsible for depletion of ozone layer.
- Improvements in our life-style have resulted in are responsible for depletion of greater amount of garbage.
Some Important Definitions
1. Eco-system. The interchange of energy and matter between biotic and abiotic components is called as eco-system.
2. Biome. When eco-systems combine, a larger system is formed which is called as Biome.
3. Biosphere. When all the biomes of world combine together resulting into a large unit that is termed as biosphere. It is considered to be the largest biological system.
4. Hydrosphere. The part of Earth covered with water is called hydrosphere.
5. Lithosphere. The outer crust of our planet Earth is called lithosphere.
6. Atmosphere. The multi layered gaseous envelope of air that covers the whole of our planet Earth like a blanket is termed as atmosphere.
7. Consumer. Those organisms which cannot produce their own food and consume already formed food are called consumers.
8. Nutrition. Nutrition is the process of providing or receiving nourshing substances with the help of food chain.
9. Food chain. A chain formed by producers, consumers and decomposers is called food chain. It is a series of organisms feeding on one another at various biotic levels.
10. Food web. The network of overlapping food chains is called food web.
11. Biogeochemical cycle. A constant interaction between the biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere makes it dynamic but stable system. These interactions consist of a transfer of matter and energy between the different components of the biosphere.
12. Macronutrients. The nutrients which are required in large amount by the body are called macro nutrients. e.g. H, N, C, O, P.
13. Micronutrients. The nutrients which are required in small amount by the body are
called micronutrients. e.g. Mn, Zn, Cu, etc.
14. Water cycle. The whole process in which water evaporates and falls on the land as rain and later flows back into the sea via rivers is known as water cycle.
15. Primary Consumers. Those organisms which eat plants or their products are known as herbivores or primary consumers.
16. Secondary consumers. Those organisms which eat flesh of other animals are known as carnivores or secondary consumers.
17. Flora. The population of plants and trees in a region.
18. Fauna. The animal population of a region. 19. Community. Group of plants and animals living together e.g. plants living in a pond.
20. Bio-magnification. Accumulation of non-biodegradable substance in large amount in our body is called as bio-magnification.
21. Biodegradable substances. Those substances which are broken down into simple substances by the decomposers in life cycle are called biodegradable substances.
22. Non-biodegradable substances. Those substances which cannot be decayed by decomposers are called non-biodegradable substances.
23. Environment. Living organisms and their surrounding constitute the environment.
24. Ecology. It is a branch of science which deals with relationship between living organisms and their environment on the basis of living and non-living components.
25. Components of Ecosystem. Physical, chemical and living parts which form the ecosystem are called the components of ecosystem.
26. Biogeochemical cycle. The constant interaction between biotic and abiotic components of biosphere that makes it a dynamic but stable system. These interactions consist of a transfer of matter and energy between different components of the biosphere.
27. Biological Magnification. The successive increase in the concentration of some toxic
substances through different trophic levels of a food chain is called as biological magnification.
28. Producer. Those plants and animals which convert solar energy into chemical energy and prepare their own food are called as producers.
29. Decomposer. Those organisms which break down complex organic compounds from the surface of their bodies and convert them into simple inorganic substances with the help of enzymes are called as decomposers.
30. Herbivores. Organisms which consume only plants and their products as food are called Herbivores.
31. Carnivores. Organisms which eat flesh of other animals for survival are called carnivores.
32. Omnivores. Organisms which eat plants, animals and their products are called omnivores.
33. Food Web. Branched food chain is called as Food web.
34. Ozone layer. The layer of ozone in stratosphere is called as ozone layer.
35. Garbage. The waste accumulated by common domestic and agricultural activities is known as garbage.