Class 10 History NCERT Solution Chapter 1 Rise of Nationalism in Europe Question Answer Solution for CBSE, HBSE and some other state boards.
Class 10 History Chapter 1 Question Answer Solution
Q. 1. Write a note on:
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini
Ans. Guiseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary, He was born in Genoa in 1807 A.D. He became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. He was a youngman of 24 when he was sent into exile in 1831 A.D. for attempting a revolution in Liguria, He subsequently founded two more underground societies namely, Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne, Members of these societies were like-minded youngmen from Poland, France, Italy and the German States. Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So, Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty. Following his model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republic frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
Ans. Count Camillo de Cavour was Chief Minister of Italy. He led the movement to unify the e regions of Italy. But he was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. Through tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859 A.D..
(c) The Greek War of Independence
Ans. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the 15th century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821 A.D. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many west Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the Cradle of European Civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. The English poet Lord Byron organised funds and later went to fight in the war where he died of fever in 1824 A.D. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
(d) Frankfurt Parliament
Ans. Elections for all-German National Assembly were held on the basis of universal adult franchise. Its first meeting was convened in the Church of St. Paul in Frankfurt. It aimed at enacting a Constitution for unified Germany. It was decided to form a legislative assembly consisting of nearly six hundred elected members of different states and a cabinet. The Prussian King Friedrich William IV was appointed its head. But Friedrich rejected it and joined with monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. While the opposition of the aristocracy and military became stronger, the social basis of parliament eroded. The parliament was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support. In the end, troops were called in and the assembly was forced to disband. Consequently, autocratic and despotic government were formed in several German states.
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
Ans. Women played a vital role in the nationalist struggles in Europe. They participated actively in the liberal movement. They formed their own political association founded newspapers and took part in political meetings and demonstrations, For example Madam Roland always opposed rights of the French king and queen in her articles and was the chairperson of the Girondist party of France.
Q. 2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people ?
Ans. The French revolutionaries took the following steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people :
- They made popular the ideas of the fatherland among the citizens. These ideas laid stress on the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
- They chose a new French flag, the tricolour to replace the former royal standard .
- The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and it was renamed the National Assembly.
- New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
- A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
- Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
- Regional dinlects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
Q. 3. Who were Marianne and Germania ? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed ?
Who were Marianne and Germania ?
Ans. Marianne and Germania were female allegories invented by artists in the 19th
century to represent the nation.
1. Marianne. In France the female allegory was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name. She underlined the ideas of a people’s nation-Her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and the Republic—the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
2. Germania. Germania was the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, she wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Q. 4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Ans. The German people did not exist as a united nation. In 1848, efforts were made to unify the numerous German-speaking principalities into a nation-state under a democratic constitution. Men and women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification. They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles, a Constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association. They tried to unite different regions of the German Confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. However, this liberal initiative to nation- building vas repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the arge landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership f the movement for national unification. Its Chief Minister, Otto Von Bismarck, was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. Three wars over seven years-with Austria, Denmark and France Ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king. William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
On 18th January 1871, an assembly comprising the princes of the German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers including the Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck gathered in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles to proclaim the new German Empire headed by Kaiser William I of Prussia.
The nation builing process in Germany had demonstrated the dominance of Prussian state power. The new state placed a strong emphasis on modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany. Prussian measures and practices often became a model for the rest of Germany.
Q.5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him ?
Ans. Napoleon introduced the following changes to make the administrative system
more efficient in the territories ruled by him :
1. He abolished all the privileges based on birth, established equality before law and secured the right to property.
2. He simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues
3. He removed guild restrictions in the towns. 4. He improved transport and communication systems.
5. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen were given freedom.
6. He introduced uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency. Such measures facilitated the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
Q. 1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals ?
Ans. By the 1848 revolution of the liberals is meant a revolution that was led by the educated middle classes of Europe.
Events of February 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed. In other parts of Europe such as Germany, Italy, Poland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, independent nation-states did not yet exist. Here men and women of the liberal middle classes demanded constitutionalism as well as national unification.
Ideas supported by the Liberals –
(1) Politically, the liberals supported the ideas of government by consent, the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a Constitution and representative government through Parliament.
(2) Socially, the liberals laid stress on the abolition of discrimination based on birth.
(3) Economically, the liberals stressed the inviolability of private property and the freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital .
Q. 2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
Ans. The growth of nationalism in Europe did not come about only through wars and
territorial expansion. Different forms of culture such as art and poetry, stories and music also contributed to its growth. Following three examples can be given to show this contribution:
1. Romanticism sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally criticised the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
2. Romantics such as the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised. So collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation- building.
3. The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. This was especially so in the case of Poland which had been partitioned at the end of the eighteenth century by the Great Powers Russia, Prussia and Austria. Even though Poland no longer existed as an independent territory, national feelings were kept alive through music and language. Karol Kurpinski, Sor example, celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
Q 3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Ans. Over the nineteenth century, several nations of Europe developed. The end result of this development was the emergence of the nation-state in place of the multi-national dynastic empires A nation state was one in which the majority of its citizens, and not its rulers came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent. This commonness did not exist from time immemorial, it was forged through struggles through the action of leaders and the common people.
National feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 A.D. National tried to unite the different regions of the German Confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. This liberal initiative to nation building was, however, by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the represeed by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia.
From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its Chief Minister, Otto Von Bismarck, was the architect of this process. He carried out it with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. Three wars over seven years-with ria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of Austria, unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
On 18th January, 1871, an assembly comprising the princes of the German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers including the Chief Minister Otto Von Bismarck gathered in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles to proclaim the new German Empire headed by Kaiser William I of Prussia.
The nation-building process in Germany had demonstrated the dominance of Prussian state power. The new state placed a strong emphasis on modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany. Prussian measures and practices often became a model for the rest of Germany.
During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states. Of these under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions under der the domination of the Bourbon kings of France. Even the Italian language were acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations.
During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme Duar Italian Republic. He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for dissemination of his goals. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 A.D. and 1848 A.D. meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King fu Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war. In the eyes of the ruling eliites of this region, a unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic development and political dominance.
Chief Minister Cavour, who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy, spoke French much better than he did Italian. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France 2 engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1869 A.D.. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and liberated these kingdoms to join Sardinia. In 1870 A.D. Rome was vacated by France and it became a part of Sardinia. In this way Italy was unified in 1871 A.D, and remained as a monarchy till the restoration of democracy.
Q. 4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe ?
Ans. In Britain, the history of nationalism was not similar to the rest of Europe. There the growth of nationalism was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution, but of a long drawn out process. There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands. The British Parliament which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 A.D.. was the instrument through which a nation state with England at its centre, came to be forged. The 1707 Act of Union between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ made England able to impose its influence on Scotland. The British Parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members. The growth of a British identity meant that Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed. The Catholic clans that inhabited the Scottish Highlands suffered terrible repression whenever they attempted to assert their independence. The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland. Ireland was deeply divided between Catholics and Protestants. The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country. Catholic revolts against the British dominance were suppressed. After a failed revolt led by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen (1798), Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801. A new ‘British nation’ was forged through the propagation of a dominant English culture. The symbols of the new Britain – the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), the English language – were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.
Q. 5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans ?
Ans. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation. It comprised modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Mecodonia, Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro. The inhabitants of this region were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. In the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire was advancing rapidly to collapse. There were revolts by various nationalities for independence. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. Imperialistic designs of the European powers made the matter further complicated. The Russian Czars encouraged the Pan-Slav movement in order to bring the states of Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Greece under its control. Different European Powers were alarmed at the growth of the Russian influence in the Balkans, They tried to fish in the troubled water and wanted to exploit the situation in their interest. This led a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.