Saraswati Indus Civilization Class 10 History Chapter 1 Notes – India and World HBSE Solution

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HBSE Class 10 History Chapter 1 Saraswati Indus Civilization notes for Haryana Board of India and World Book Solution.

Saraswati Indus Civilization Class 10 History Chapter 1 Notes


India’s first urban civilization arose in the fertile plains of the Saraswati and Indus rivers. It is known as ‘Saraswati-Indus Civilization’ or ‘Indus Civilization’ or ‘Harappan Civilization’ due to its location on the banks of Saraswati and Indus rivers .

First in 1921 AD Dayaram Sahni excavated Harappa in Punjab province and in 1922 AD Rakhal Das Banerjee excavated complete sites from Mohenjodaro in Sindh province.


Expansion of Saraswati-Indus Civilization —

This civilization ranged from Alamgirpur (Western Uttar Pradesh) in the east to Sutkagendor (Balochistan) in the west and Manda (Jammu) in the north to Daimabad (Maharashtra) in the south.

The area of ​​this civilization is 2,15,000 square kilometers. In which 1600 km from east to west and 1400 km from north to south.

The main sites of this civilization are found in Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, western Uttar Pradesh, northern Rajasthan, Gujarat and Balochistan, Sindh etc. In which Rakhigarhi, Banawali (Haryana), Mohenjodaro (Indus), Harappa (Punjab), Dholavira (Gujarat) and Kalibanga (Rajasthan) were important cities.


Chronology of Saraswati-Indus Civilization —

This civilization started around 7500-7000 BC on the banks of the Saraswati river. In this civilization, in 3200 BC, the characteristics of town planning, the development of writing art, idioms and the method of measurement developed. By 1900 BCE, the change of urban civilization started taking place in rural culture. This civilization collapsed before 1300 AD.

From the point of view of chronology, the Saraswati-Indus civilization is divided into three phases.

  1. Early Period (>4000-2600 BC)
  2. Urban period (2600-1900 BC)
  3. Late Period (1900-1300 BC)

The city plan of the Saraswati-Indus civilization —

In the cities of this civilization, two mounds are usually found in the east and west direction. The housing area was situated on the east mound and the fort was situated on the west mound. Common citizens, merchants, craftsmen, artisans and workers lived in the housing area of ​​the city. Administrative, public buildings and granaries were located inside the fort.

The roads of this civilization used to divide the eyes into five-six sections. The main roads in Mohenjodaro were 9.15 meters wide and the streets were on an average 3 meters wide. Roads were unpaved but special attention was paid to cleanliness. Dustbins were also kept on the side of the roads.

The drains of the houses used to fall in the big drain on the side of the road. Then the water used to go out of the city through drains. The drains were made of solid bricks and were covered from above.

The residential buildings of this civilization had three or four rooms, kitchen, bathroom and courtyard in the middle of the building. The homes of the affluent also had wells and toilets. Evidence of plastering has also been found on the windows, skylights, floors and walls in the houses. In community buildings there are assembly halls, granaries and baths. Bricks in the ratio 1:2:3 and 1:2:4 have been used in the construction of buildings.


Art of Saraswati-Indus Civilization

Metal and clay sculptures are mentioned in this civilization. In addition, pieces, beads and pottery were made.

The fragmented male idol found from Mohenjodaro is 19 cm tall which is very famous. The idol of a world famous metal dancer has also been found from Mohenjodaro. Clay sculptures of men, women and animals and birds have also been found.

Animals and birds include ox, sheep, goat, dog, elephant, boar, peacock, duck, parrot and pigeon.

Seals in this civilization are mainly square or rectangular. On which animals, birds, deities and scripts have been inscribed with subtle instruments. Jewelery of Selkhadi, Onyx, Conch, ivory, gold, silver and copper are found.


Political life of Saraswati-Indus civilization

In the Mesopotamian civilization, the administration of city-states was in the hands of the priestly rulers and the entire land was the property of temples. Scholars believe that, “The administration of Saraswati-Indus civilization was conducted from two capitals named Harappa and Mohenjodaro.” There is not much evidence of the political life of this civilization.


Social life of Saraswati-Indus civilization

The society of this civilization must have been divided into many classes. Cities were divided into fortification area and housing area. The wealthy people or ruling class used to reside in the city forts. The fort area of ​​Dholavira was divided into two parts. Security and special facilities were taken care of in the fortified areas.

Traders, soldiers, officers, craftsmen and laborers lived in the residential area. The residential areas at Harappa and Mohenjodaro were not even surrounded by defences. But evidence of fortifications has been found in Kalibanga, Lothal, Banawali and Dholavira.

Farmers, potters, carpenters, sailors, laborers, jewelers and weavers were important classes in the society of this civilization.

The main food of the people of this civilization was barley, wheat, rice, fruits, vegetables, milk, meat (fish, sheep, goat, swine). Evidence of cooking and grinding of food is also found from the stove, silbatta etc. found in the excavation. For food, thali, glass bowl and lota etc. are used.

At that time both men and women used to wear ornaments. In ornaments mainly necklaces, armbands, bracelets, rings were worn. The rich used to wear ornaments made of gold and silver, semi-precious stones, ivory, etc., while the poor wore ornaments made of clay, bone and stone.

They mainly used ivory shoulders and copper glasses. Women also used to apply kajal, surma, vermilion. The game of chess and dance were their means of entertainment.


Economic life of Saraswati-Indus civilization-

The region of Saraswati-Indus was very fertile. The people here mainly cultivated wheat, barley, rice, moong, lentils, peas, mustard, cotton, sesame etc.

The specific types of crops, method of planting crops, agricultural equipment, irrigation system etc. show the agricultural development of that time.

The stone sickle obtained from Mehrgarh, the plowing field obtained from Kalibanga and the sample of the plow obtained from Banawali are proof of this.

Bulls, cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats, dogs, donkeys and pigs were mainly reared in this civilization. They were used for milk, meat, skins and so on. The people of this civilization also domesticated horses and camels. Apart from this, evidence of wild animals like wild boar, chinkara, deer and nilgai has also been found.

This civilization also imported and exported goods. It had a system of measurement, currencies, means of transport. Trade by land was done by bullock carts and by sea route by boat.


Religious life of Saraswati-Indus civilization

The people of this civilization worshiped the mother power. The evidence of which is found in the clay sculptures of women and the marking of female figures on the seals. Traces of smoke have also been found on these idols.

People of this civilization also used to worship Pashupati Shiva. A seal obtained from Mohenjodaro depicts a three-headed man with horns sitting in yoga posture on a throne. Elephant and tiger are shown on the right side, rhinoceros and buffalo are shown on the left. Two deer are shown standing under the throne. This idol is believed to be the idol of Pashupati Shiva. Shivling was also worshiped by the people of this civilization.

The people of this civilization mainly worshiped one horned animal, bull, snake, peepal.

Yoga must have also been important in this civilization. One seal from Mohenjodaro shows the figure of a man in Padmasana posture and another seal shows the yoga man’s half-open eyes centered on the tip of the nostrils. In this civilization, the swastika symbol is also found on the seals.

There were three methods of funeral in this civilization .

  1. complete burial
  2. partial burial
  3. Cremation

The tomb areas were outside the cities. The heads of the dead bodies were towards the north and the feet were towards the south. Pottery, jewellery, tools, etc. were kept with the skeletons.


Reasons for the decline of Saraswati-Indus civilization

Not one but many reasons must have been responsible for the decline of this civilization. So far no concrete evidence has been found which would show how this civilization collapsed. Some of the major reasons for the downfall are written below:-

  1. Administrative laxity – Due to the limited size of the settlement and due to lack of cleanliness, this civilization came to an end.
  2. Climate change – due to less rainfall and due to drying up of water of Saraswati river, they declined.
  3. Flood – Evidence of floods has also been found in the excavations of Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro, Lothal and Bhagtrao. This can also be the reason for the downfall.
  4. Stagnation in foreign trade – Due to the decrease in foreign trade of this civilization, the economic structure became weak. Due to which the demand for local production instead of valuable goods increased and the standard of living of the people fell drastically.
  5. Epidemic – A study of 42 human skeletons recovered from Mohenjodaro revealed that 41 of them died of malaria. This could also be the reason for the decline of this civilization.

 

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