Saraswati Indus Civilization Class 10 History Chapter 1 Question Answer – India and World HBSE Solution

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HBSE Class 10 History Chapter 1 Saraswati Indus Civilization Question Answer for Haryana Board of India and World Book Solution.

Saraswati Indus Civilization Class 10 History Chapter 1 Question Answer


Let’s remember again –


Question 1 – What were the main features of the city planning of the Saraswati-Indus civilization?

Answer –In the cities of this civilization, two mounds are usually found in the east and west direction. The housing area was situated on the east mound and the fort was situated on the west mound. Common citizens, merchants, craftsmen, artisans and workers lived in the housing area of ​​the city. Administrative, public buildings and granaries were located inside the fort. The roads of this civilization used to divide the cities into five-six blocks. The main roads in Mohenjodaro were 9.15 meters wide and the streets were on an average 3 meters wide. Roads were unpaved but special attention was paid to cleanliness. Dustbins were also kept along the roads. The drains of the houses used to fall in the big drain on the side of the road. Then the water used to go out of the city through drains. The drains were made of solid bricks and were covered from above. The residential buildings of this civilization had three or four rooms, kitchen, There was a courtyard between the bathroom and the building. The homes of the affluent also had wells and toilets. Evidence of plastering has also been found on windows, skylights, floors and walls of houses.


Question 2 – How was the social and religious life of the people of Saraswati-Indus civilization?

Answer – 

Social life of Saraswati-Indus civilization

The society of this civilization must have been divided into many classes. Farmers, potters, carpenters, sailors, laborers, jewelers and weavers were important classes in the society of this civilization. Traders, soldiers, officers, craftsmen and laborers lived in the residential area. The residential areas at Harappa and Mohenjodaro were not even surrounded by defences. But evidence of fortifications has been found in Kalibanga, Lothal, Banawali and Dholavira. The main food of the people of this civilization was barley, wheat, rice, fruits, vegetables, milk, meat (fish, sheep, goat, swine). At that time both men and women used to wear ornaments. In ornaments mainly necklaces, armbands, bracelets, rings were worn. They mainly used ivory shoulders and copper glasses. Women also used to apply kajal, surma, vermilion. The game of chess and dance were their means of entertainment.

Religious life of Saraswati-Indus civilization

The people of this civilization worshiped the mother power. People of this civilization also used to worship Pashupati Shiva. A seal obtained from Mohenjodaro depicts a three-headed man with horns sitting in yoga posture on a throne. Elephant and tiger are shown on the right side, rhinoceros and buffalo are shown on the left. Two deer are shown standing under the throne. This idol is believed to be the idol of Pashupati Shiva. Shivling was also worshiped by the people of this civilization. The people of this civilization mainly worshiped one horned animal, bull, snake, peepal.


Question 3 – What was the economic structure of the Saraswati-Indus civilization?

Answer – Saraswati-Indus civilization was an economically prosperous civilization. The main occupation of the people here was agriculture. Here people mainly cultivated wheat, barley, rice, moong, lentils, peas, mustard, cotton, sesame etc. The specific types of crops, method of planting crops, agricultural equipment, irrigation system etc. show the agricultural development of that time. Bulls, cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats, dogs, donkeys and pigs were mainly reared in this civilization. They were used for milk, meat, skins and so on. This civilization also imported and exported goods. Trade by land route was done by bullock carts and by sea route by boat.


Question 4 – What were the artistic features of the Saraswati-Indus civilization?

Answer –  In this civilization, metal and clay idols are mentioned. In addition, pieces, beads and pottery were made. An idol of a fractured man and a metal dancer’s sculpture have also been found from Mohenjodaro. Clay sculptures of men, women and animals and birds have also been found. Seals have also been found in this civilization. On which animals, birds, deities and scripts have been inscribed with subtle instruments. Jewelery of Selkhadi, Onyx, Conch, ivory, gold, silver and copper are found.


Let’s consider-


Question 1 – Consider the extent and chronology of the Saraswati-Indus civilization.

Answer –

Expansion of Saraswati-Indus Civilization —

This civilization ranged from Alamgirpur (Western Uttar Pradesh) in the east to Sutkagendor (Balochistan) in the west and Manda (Jammu) in the north to Daimabad (Maharashtra) in the south. The area of ​​this civilization is 2,15,000 square kilometers. In which 1600 km from east to west and 1400 km from north to south. Rakhigarhi, Banawali (Haryana), Mohenjodaro (Indus), Harappa (Punjab), Dholavira (Gujarat) and Kalibanga (Rajasthan) were important cities.

Chronology of Saraswati-Indus Civilization —

From the point of view of chronology, the Saraswati-Indus civilization is divided into three phases.

  1. Early Period (>4000-2600 BC)
  2. Urban period (2600-1900 BC)
  3. Late Period (1900-1300 BC)

The beginning of this civilization is around 7500-7000 BC. It happened on the banks of Saraswati river. In this civilization 3200 BC. Characteristics of town planning, the development of writing art idioms and the development of the method of measuring. 1900 BC By the time, the change of urban civilization started taking place in rural culture. 1300 BC This civilization collapsed.


Question 2 – Discuss in detail about the reasons for the decline of Saraswati-Indus civilization.

Answer –  Not one but many reasons must have been responsible for the decline of this civilization. Some of the major reasons for the downfall are written below:-

  1. Administrative laxity – Due to the limited size of the settlement and due to lack of cleanliness, this civilization came to an end.
  2. Climate change – due to less rainfall and due to drying up of water of Saraswati river, they declined.
  3. Flood – Evidence of floods has also been found in the excavations of Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro, Lothal and Bhagtrao. This can also be the reason for the downfall.
  4. Stagnation in foreign trade – Due to the decrease in foreign trade of this civilization, the economic structure became weak. Due to which the demand for local production instead of valuable goods increased and the standard of living of the people fell drastically.
  5. Epidemic – A study of 42 human skeletons recovered from Mohenjodaro revealed that 41 of them died of malaria. This could also be the reason for the decline of this civilization.

Question 3 – What is the contribution of Saraswati-Indus civilization to the world?

Answer – Saraswati Indus Civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. The world got to learn a lot from this civilization. The best example of town planning system was seen in this civilization. In which the system of road system and drainage of water in the city was important. Evidence of agriculture and its tools were also found in this civilization. This civilization revealed which animals were domesticated from the very beginning. Apart from this, import and export were also seen.


Let’s do it –


Question 1 – List the trading centers of Saraswati-Indus civilization.

Answer –

  • Harappa
  • mohenjodaro
  • Lothal
  • Kalibanga
  • Chanhudaro

Question 2 – List the sites of Saraswati-Indus civilization in Haryana.

Answer –

  • Mitathal
  • made
  • Rakhigarhi
  • siswal
  • decree
  • Kunal

 

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