NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 2 The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China Question Answer of Social Science Book. Students also Needs Notes and Important Questions of Class 10 History for score High in Exams.
Read Me:- Class 10 History NCERT Solution
The Nationalist Movement in Indo China Question Answer of Class 10th History Chapter 2 NCERT Solution for HBSE, CBSE, MP Board, RBSE and some other boards.
The Nationalist Movement in Indo China Questions and Answer Class 10 History
Write in brief:
Q. 1. Write a note on :
(a) What was meant by the ‘civilising mission of the colonisers ?
Ans. The colonisers considered themselves as the advanced and people of the colonies, the backward. They thought it was the mission of the advanced European countries to bring the benefits of civilisation to backward people. Europe had developed the mont advanced civilisation. So it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony. That is what the civilising mission of the colonisers meant.
(b) Huynh Phu So.
Ans. Huynh Phu So was the founder of a religious movement called Hoa Hao. This movement drew on religious ideas popular in anti-French uprisings of the nineteenth century. Huynh Phu So performed miracles and helped the poor. He criticised useless expenditure. He also opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium. The French tried to suppress the Hoa Hao movement. They declared Huynh Phu So mad and put him in mental asylum. They also sent many of his followers to concentration camps.
Q. 2. Explain the following:
(a) Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations.
Ans. The French wanted to impart education to the Vietnamese so that they could understand modern ideas of Europe. But in order to educate them, the French authorities were in dilemma. They needed an educated local labour force. But French citizens living
in Vietnam feared that they might lose their jobs if the Vietnamese were educated. So
they opposed policies that would give the Vietnamese full access to the French education. The French authorities followed a deliberate policy of failing Vietname students, particularly in the final year, so that they could not quali, r the better-paid jobs.
(b) The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta.
Ans. The French were colonial power. They needed supply of natural resources and other essential commodities. So they began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation. Consequently, rice production increased and thom started exporting rice to the international market. Vietnam exported two-thirds of rice production and by 1931 AD. had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
(c) The government made the Saigon Native Girls School take back the students it was expelled.
Ans. In 1926 A.D., in the Saigon Native Girls School, a Vietnamese girl was sitting in one of the front seats. She was asked to vacate her seat to a local French student. But the girl refused to do so, The French principal expelled her. When angry students protested, they too were expelled. This incident led to a further spread of open protests. Seeing the situation getting out of control, the government made the Saigon Native Girls School to take back the students it was expelled.
(d) Rats were most common in the modern, newly built areas of Hanoi Ans. The French wanted to modernise Vietnam, so they decided to rebuild Hanoi.
Ans. The French part of the city was built as a beautiful and clean city. It had wide avenues and well laid out sewer system. But the other part of city was not provided with any modern facilities. The refuse from the old city drained straight out into the river. During heavy rains or floods, this refuse overflowed into the streets. In such situations, rata began to enter homes in the modern part of the city through sewage pipes and spread plague there.
Q. 3. Describe the ideas behind the Tonkin Free School. To what extent was it a typical example of colonial ideas in Vietnam ?
Ans. The French wanted to spread their culture and civilisation in Vietnam. So they
opened several schools in Vietnam. One such school was the Tonkin Free School set up in 1907 A.D.. In this school subjects like science, hygiene and French were taught to the Vietnamese students. Later on, the French authorities thought that only learning science and hygiene was not enough for the Vietnamese to be modern. They should be modern in appearance also. So the adoption of western styles was encouraged in the school. One such style was a short haircut. But the Vietnamese traditionally kept long hair. So they resisted it meant a major break with their own identity.
Q. 4. What was Phan Chu Trinh’s objective for Vietnam ? How were his ideas different from those of Phan Boi Chau ?
Ans. Phan Chu Trinh was a great nationalist of Vietnam. He wanted to make Vietnam a democratic republic. Phan Boi Chau was another nationalist of Vietnam. The ideas of Phan Chu Trinh were different from those of Phan Boi Chau in the following ways :
1. Phan Chu Trinh wished to overthrow the monarchy in order to create a basis for the promotion of popular rights. Phan Boi Chau, on the contrary, maintained that first the foreign enemy should be driven out and then the nation’s independence was restored.
2. Phan Boi Chau’s plan was to make use of the monarchy, which Phan Chu Trinh opposed absolutely. Phan Chu Trinh’s plan was to raise up the people to abolish the monarchy, with which Phan Boi Chau absolutely disagreed.
In short, both Phan Chu Trinh and Phan Boi Chau were pursuing one and the same goal, but their means were considerably different.
Q. 1. With reference to what you have read in this chapter, discuss the influence of China on Vietnam’s culture and life.
Ans. Geographically, Vietnam is very close to China. The Vietnamese rulers followed the Chinese culture and way of life. Both the countries had trade relations between them. In the two countries, Buddhism and Confucianism were major religions. The elites in Vietnam were educated in Chinese and Confucianism. A Vietname nationalist, Phan Boi Chau met the Chinese reformer Liang Qichao in 1905 A.D. Phan’s most influential book, The History of the Loss of Vietnam’ was written under the strong influence and advice of Qichao. It became a widely read bestseller in Vietnam and China and was even made into a play, Phan Boi Chau sought exile in China. In 1911 A.D., the monarchy in China was overthrown and a Republic was set up. This inspired the Vietnamese students and they organised the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam.
Q. 2. What was the role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam ?
Ans. Religious groups played a very important role in the development of anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam. Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices. When French missionaries tried to thrust Christianity on the Vietnamese, they faced a severe resistance. It aroused anti-imperialist feeling in the minds of the Vietnamese people. Consequently, many religious movements were launched against the French.
An early movement against the French control and the spread of Christianity was the Scholars Revolt in 1868 A.D. In this movement, nearly one thousand Catholics were killed. Although the French crushed this movement, yet it inspired other revolutionaries to rise up against them. Another movement against the French was the Hoa Hao, launched by Huynh Phu So, The French tried to suppress this movement also.
Q. 3. Explain the causes of the US involvement in the war in Vietnam. What effect did this involvement have on life within the US itself ?
Ans. Causes of the US Involvement in the War in Vietnam.
(1) The US considered itself the champion of democracy. It wanted to check the spread of communism in the world at all costs. So when a communist government was formed in Vietnam, the US came forward to dethrone it.
(2) The French troops suffered a severe blow at the hands of Vietminh at Dien Bien Phu. France was an ally of the US in the Second World War. So it wanted to save the prestige of France.
(3) By the Geneva Conference it was agreed to partition Vietnam temporarily into North Vietnam and South Vietnam and to hold elections all over Vietnam within two years to decide its fate. The government of South Vietnam backed by the US refused to abide by the decision of the Geneva Conference. The US was opposed to the unification of Vietnam under the leadership of the Communist party. In 1960, there broke out an uprising against the government of South Vietnam. The US sent a large number of troops with the most advanced and sophisticated weapons to suppress the uprising. Effect of the Involvement on Life within the US itself. The US involvement in the war in Vietnam caused a huge loss of men and money to her. From 1965 to 1972, nearly 3.40 lac US services personnel served in Vietnam. By 1975 A.D., the US lost about 75 thousand soldiers in the war. The US government was severely criticised. Consequently, by April 1975, all the American troops withdrew from Vietnam and the capital of South Vietnam, Saigon was liberated. North Vietnam and South Vietnam were formally united as one country in 1976 A.D.. The city of Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh after the great leader of Vietnam.
Q. 4. Write an evaluation of the Vietnamese war against the US from the point of
(a) a porter on the Ho Chi Minh trail
(b) a woman soldier.
(a) A porter on the Ho Chi Minh trail.
The Ho Chi Minh trail was an immense network of footpaths and roads. It was used to transport men and materials from the North to the South. The porters working on this trail were mainly women. They carried about 25 kilos of supplies on their backs, or about 70 kilos on their bicycles, There was always a danger of the US bombing on the trail. But the porters cared little and continued the supplies. In this way they served their nation heroicly.
(b) A woman soldier.
The Vietnamese women served as brave fighters in the Vietnamese war against the US. They joined the Vietnamese army happily. They guarded the Ho Chin Minh trail day and night. They built six airstrips, neutralised tens of thousands of bombs and shot down fifteen planes. It is estimated that there were 1.4 million women in the regular army, the militia, the local forces and professional teams.
Q. 5. What was the role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam ? Compare this with the role of women in the nationalist struggle in India.
What was the role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietham ?
Ans. The role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam was praiseworthy. They joined the Vietnamese army happily and fought bravely against the imperialist powers. They helped in nursing the wounded and constructing underground rooms and tunnels, They served as porters on the Ho Chi Minh trail. They kept open several strategic roads and guarded key points. They built six airstrips, neutralised tens of thousands of bombs, transported tens of thousands of kilograms of cargo weapons and food and shot down fifteen planes.
Comparison of the Role of Vietnamese and Indian Women.
Like the Vietnamese women, the Indian women too fought bravely against the imperialist powers. There were several women in India’s struggle for independence who suffered hardships and were jailed many a time. Some of them even sacrificed their lives. But they kept on their struggle against the British. The names of Rani Laxmi Bai, Vijay Lakshmi Pandit, Annie Besant, Aruna Asaf Ali, Sarojani Naidu, Indira Gandhi etc. are prominent amongst such women.