Class 9 history
Chapter 1: The French Revolution
The city of Paris was alarmed on the morning of 14th July 1789. The king had commanded the troops to move into the city. Rumors spread all around that the King would soon order the army to open fire upon the citizen. When Estates-General was called by Louis XVI on May 5, 1789, the representatives of first and second estates were seated while 600 representatives of third estates had to stand at the back. In addition, the representatives of third states were not given equal voting right like the first and second states. When there was the uncertainty of regular executive in France due to conflict o f5 members of executive body and legislature councils, Napolean took benefits from it and crowned himself emperor of France in 1804. He set out to conquer neighboring European countries and dispossessing the dynasties of Monarch.
Chapter 2: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Before 1905 Russain society was divided into small peasants, nobles and the Orthodox Church. The nobles and churches owned large properties, whereas, in cities, the society was divided into employers and employees. Workers were divided into groups on the basis of skills they had. Women constituted 31 percent of the factory labor force. 85 percent of the countryside population was engaged in agriculture. They were mostly small and poor peasants. In cities, factory workers getting a very small amount from their labor. Their wage was not sufficient to support their social life. Working hours were long as 12-15 hours, the profit of the factories was the property of the owners. Whereas the percentage of working population involved in agriculture was low in other European countries. For example, in France and Germany, the proportion of agriculturists was between 40 to 50 percent. Russian peasants ad different systems of their social build-up from other European peasants as the Russian peasants cultivated their land collectively and their commune(mir) divided the production and profit according to the needs of individuals families.
Chapter 3: Nazism and the Rise of Hitler
There was a political vacuum that the Weimer Republic failed to fill. And Nazis filled that vacuum by earning public support in the year 1932 when they became the largest party with 35% votes. This was the result of Nazi propaganda and the call given by Hitler. He dreamt of a powerful, prosperous and happy Germany. Thus, he believed, could not be attained without people’s participation. And then he successfully mobilized the masses. He also successfully overcame his political opponents. Hitler’s youth program, racial discrimination, and call for youth to join the army, got instant public support. He was able to capture the imagination of people, whose sense of dignity and pride had been shattered through the treaty of Versatiles, and who were living in a time of acute economic and political crisis.
Chapter 4: Forest Society and Colonialism