Major Civilization’s of the Ancient World Class 10 History Chapter 2 Notes – India and World HBSE Solution

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HBSE Class 10 History Chapter 2 Major Civilization of the Ancient World Notes for Haryana Board of India and World Book Solution.

Major Civilization of the Ancient World Class 10 History Chapter 2 Notes

Egyptian Civilization

All this beta started about 7000 years ago. 4000 BC The development of Egyptian civilization accelerated due to the union of two kingdoms (North Egypt and South Egypt). The capital of North Egypt was ‘Buto’ and the emblem was ‘Bee’. The capital of South Egypt was ‘Taikhebe’ and the emblem was ‘Bunch of Papyrus’.

A king named Mena or Minis in 3400 BC. He brought both the states under his control. He made ‘Memphis’ the capital of Egypt and established the first Egyptian dynasty.

Means of knowing the history of Egypt

  1. Literary Instruments – Herodotus, Diodes, Menetho
  2. Archaeological Resources – Pyramids, Mausoleums, Murals, Temples, Roseto Inscriptions
  3. Modern Instruments – Adolf Irman and J. s. Brasted’s Books.

Politics –

The king of Egypt was called ‘Pharaoh’. The pharaoh was considered the representative of justice and God.

The political history of Egypt can be divided into three parts:-

  1. Antiquity or Pyramid Age (3400 BC – 2160 BC)
  2. Medieval or Feudal Age (2160 BC – 1580 BC)
  3. New Age or Imperial Age (1580 BC – 650 BC)

Pyramid Age – 6 dynasties ruled in this era. In which the main rulers are Narmer, Atta, Djoser, Imhotep, Khufu, Yusrekaf, Khafre etc. These rulers built triangular tombs which were named as pyramids. Imhotep is credited with building the pyramids in Egypt.

The rulers of Egypt considered the Sun god as their favorite deity, so they built huge Piranloos to please the Sun.

Feudal Era – Five major dynasties ruled in this era. In which Inte, Metuhotep, Amanhotep, Senwo, Saret etc. are the main rulers. In this era, the power of the state came in the hands of the feudatories, due to which there was a very rapid development. During this time the tomb was built and trade and agriculture also flourished. These feudal lords used to fight among themselves and there was unrest and chaos all around. Taking advantage of this, the Hyksas people of Syria took control of Egypt and started exploiting them. In the end Amosis, the feudal lord of Thebes, drove the Hyksas people out of Egypt and began to rule himself.

Imperial Age – In this era the powers of the feudal lords were abolished by the ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty, Amenhotep. People were happy and prosperous during this period. The major rulers of this period were Amenhotep II, Ahmose I, Thutmose I, Amenhotep III, Hatshopsut etc. About 31 dynasties ruled Egypt for 3100 years and finally reached 332 BC. In AD the Greek ruler Alexander took control of Egypt.

Administrative law –

Pharaoh (King) – The king was autocratic and the ruler was the ruler, all the powers of governance were in his hands and people considered him as a god.

Wazir – The Wazir used to help the pharaohs in the work of governance, his main function was to collect rent and keep an account of income and expenditure.

Military organization – The Egyptian pharaohs did not have a standing army. During the Baravi dynasty, the pharaoh arranged a standing army.

Council – In the court of the pharaoh, there was a separate council of old courtiers, called Saru, who used to advise the kings.

Provincial rule – Pharaoh divided the empire into many provinces for the convenience of rule, each province was called Nom and its ruler was called Nomark.

Local Government – The administration of the local government was in the hands of the feudatories. The towns also had an administrative officer who was responsible for maintaining peace and collecting taxes.

Judiciary system – The pharaoh was the chief justice. The trial went in writing and the pharaoh would decide the case within three days. The offender was given harsh punishment.

Economy and Commerce —

Agriculture – Egypt was an agricultural country. The main crops here were wheat, barley, cotton, flax, and among the fruits were grapes, figs and dates.

Animal Husbandry – The Egyptians kept animals like cow, sheep, donkey, calf, monkey and chicken.

Industries – The people of that time were skilled in cutting stones, making ornaments and utensils, making copper and bronze weapons and making wooden furniture. People were also skilled in building boats and ships. At that time paper was made from a grass plant called papyrus.

Commerce and Trade – Trade in Egypt was done through the Nile River. Spices, colours, oil, powder and sandalwood were imported from Egypt, India and Arabia.

Culture and Religion – The Egyptians were polytheistic and worshiped various forms of nature. In total there were 3000 gods in Egypt. The greatest god of Egypt was the Sun. Which was called by many names like Re, Ra, Horus, Eman etc. After that they also worshiped the god of the Nile (Osiris), the god of the sky (Nut), the god of the moon (Sin).

After the death of the pharaohs and feudatories, they used to put a chemical coating in the tomb and put them in the tomb so that the dead body would not get spoiled. It was called mummy and these tombs were called pyramids.

The gift of Egyptian civilization to the world :-

  1. Egypt gave the world 1 year and a calendar of 365 days.
  2. Invented the sun clock and water clock.
  3. Made many discoveries in the field of HD science. He prepared such a chemical coating that the dead body could be preserved for centuries.
  4. The names of 600 medicines related to various diseases have been found in an Egyptian list.
  5. Promoted the principle of monotheism.

Mesopotamian Civilization

Modern Iraq, located north of the Persian Gulf, was called Mesopotamia in ancient times. Mesopotamia is a Greek word. It is made up of two words ‘meso’ and ‘potam’. ‘Meso’ means middle and ‘potam’ means river, thus Mesopotamia literally means part between two rivers.

The civilizations that developed in the Mesopotamian region were Sumerian, Babylonian and Assyrian. These civilizations are believed to have given rise to Sumeria, Babylonian took it to its zenith and Assyria took it and progressed.

Means of knowing the civilizations of Mesopotamia

  1. record records
  2. rosetta record
  3. sousa record
  4. religious literature
  5. Materials found from the excavations of cities like Ur, Eridu, Lagash, Nippur etc.
  6. Inscriptions excavated on the clay strip village, Jigurat
  7. Hammurabi’s Code

Sumerian Civilization – 4700 BC The people of the Sumerian race of Persia invaded Mesopotamia and took control. At that time in Sumeria there were city states like Ur, Nipur, Lagash, Uruk etc. Each city had its own deity. The independent rulers of Nagar Raju were called Patesi. The main functions of the Patesi were to collect land tax, protect the city from external aggression and adjudicate public cases. The people of this civilization invented a script called ‘Kilakshar script’.

High pyramid-shaped temples in the cities of Sumer are called ziggurats.

Babylonian Civilization – The Babylonian civilization developed on the banks of the Hemerite River in the southern part of Mesopotamia. 2200 BC In AD the Emrites, a branch of the Semitic people, established their authority over Sumer. After a continuous war of about 100 years, the great king of this race, Hammurabi, captured Mesopotamia and tied it into political unity and made Babylon his capital. He took the progress of his empire to the zenith (the Semitic speaking race is called the Semitic.)

Assyrian Civilization – The Semitic people settled the city of Ashur by occupying the upper bank of the Tigris River. The first powerful king here was Tiglath Pilesar I. Ashur Banipal was the last great and famous ruler of Assyria. He made extraordinary progress in trade, education and art during his time and built grand palaces and temples in his capital. Each king of Assyria abandoned the old palace and built a new one for himself.

Administrative system – In this civilization the rulers were autocratic and they had complete control over the empire. They ruled on the basis of divine principle. He was the supreme commander, judge and highest official. They used to divide the empire into many provinces and choose the governor of the province for the conduct of the rule. The governor used to collect taxes from his province, maintain peace and assist the ruler in war.

Social life – The society of that time was divided into three classes upper class, middle class and lower class. In the upper class there were kings, high officials and priests. The middle class consisted of feudal lords and merchants and the lower class consisted of slaves and farmers.

Religious Life – The people of Mesopotamia were polytheistic. They worshiped the fields, rivers, mountains. Their main deities were Anu (god of the sky), Ki (earth), Sin (moon), Tammuz (god of vegetation and agriculture), Ishtar (goddess of love), Nargal (god of plague) etc. Sacrifices were also offered to please these deities.

Economic Life – Agriculture was the main occupation of the people of this civilization. Wheat, barley, olive, cotton and grapes were cultivated in this. The people of that time were also advanced in industry and trade. Trade was done with pieces of gold, silver and copper. Here camel and goat were special among the animals. Along with beautiful wood carvings, gold, silver and precious stones were also carved here.

Greek Civilization

Greece is a peninsula located in the southeast of Europe. It is surrounded by sea on three sides. In which there are 502 islands. The rise of Greek civilization is around 4000 BC. happened in what was called the civilization of Crete. After the decline of the Crete civilization, the Mycenaean civilization emerged in the city of Mycin. Which 1200 BC By the time it ended. 1200 BC I Aryan tribes took over Greece and gave birth to developed civilizations in city states. These city states were also called ‘polis’.

The political history of this civilization can be divided into three parts:-

  1. Dark Ages or Homer Age (1200 BC to 800 BC)
  2. Iron Age or City State Age (800 BC to 500 BC)
  3. Hellenistic era (500 BC to 200 BC)

Means of knowing Greek civilization

  1. The epics Iliad and Odyssey by Homer.
  2. The Historica of Herodotus.
  3. Materials found from the excavations of cities like Athens, Corinth, Sparta, Thebes etc.
  4. Thucydides’s Peloponnesian War
  5. Works of Plato and Aristotle.

Administrative and Political System – Rulers of dynasties ruled in this civilization. The kings were autocratic and the subjects considered the king equal to God. The king used to administer the rule in consultation with a council called ‘Bul’.

The time of Alexander is famous in world history as the Hellenistic era. Alexander in 336 BC He killed his father Philip and became the ruler of Mukhdonia (Macedonia). He crushed the rebellion in Greece and took control of all of Greece.

At that time there were 150 cities in Greece in which there were three types of citizens-

  1. free citizens
  2. foreign national
  3. Slave

Social System – The society of that time was divided into 4 classes.

  1. Nobility – This class was the owner of vast land wealth and had a large number of slaves. This class used to lead in times of war.
  2. Middle class – This class included ordinary citizens who were called freemen or paroasis. This class played a role in trade and commerce.
  3. Working class – This class included workers. who were called Thets.
  4. Slave class – This class included slaves who were called Hatol.

Economic and commercial system – The trade of Greece was far and wide. The industries of the Greek people were making metal utensils in clay, making weapons, making furniture, making olive oil and making wine from grapes, etc. Agriculture was not given much attention in this civilization. Gold, silver and iron came out in the mountains of Greece.

Religious and Cultural Life – The people of Greece were polytheistic. These people worshiped natural forces and animals and they also believed in ghosts. Their main gods were Zeus (god of the sky), Apollo (the sun), Hermus (god of trade), Poseidon (god of the sea), Mars (god of war), Demeter (goddess of food) etc. The means of entertainment of these people included dancing, singing and getting animal fights.

Roman civilization

1000 BC Rome was a small village situated on seven hills on the banks of the Tiber River in central Italy. It was also called the city of seven hills. 8th century BC It became a huge empire. The Etruscan race developed the civilization of Rome. The Italian people also learned the knowledge of alphabet, art, war and weapons from this caste. 500 BC The Latin Aryans of Rome defeated the Atruscan race. Romulus became the first emperor of Rome.

The political history of Roman civilization can be divided into four parts:-

  1. Monarchy period (753 BC to 509 BC)
  2. Republic period (509 BC to 133 BC)
  3. The period of military leaders (133 BC to 27 BC)
  4. Imperial period (27 BC to 476 AD)

Monarchy period – During this period the king was the head of the state, his powers were unlimited. At this time the society was divided into two classes Patrician class and Plebian class. The light-in people in the patrician class were the real residents of the room. In this class, the people of the high and aristocratic family of the room used to come. The second class, the Plebians, consisted of freed slaves, the landless and the poor.

Age of Augustus 31 BC From 14 BC is called the Golden Age of Rome.

Means of knowing the civilization of Rome

  1. Articles on 12 plaques – Twelve Tables.
  2. Writings on wooden boards by the priests of Rome – Annals Pontificum.
  3. Livy’s writings – the writings of Palibius and Diodorus.

Administrative System – The administration of Rome was centered in the hands of the Senate elected by the people. The number of members of the Senate was 300, but all these members belonged to the patrician class. Two judges were appointed by the Senate, called ‘consuls’, who had a term of one year. Apart from this, there were also three officials to assist in the administration – censors (tax collectors), aldis (peacekeepers) and protors (judges). Due to non-payment of salaries to the governors, they used to collect arbitrary taxes from the public.

Economic system – The main occupation of the Roman people was agriculture and animal husbandry. They grew crops like wheat, barley, millet, grapes, olives, apples. Here people also used to do the work of making garments, utensils, industry, gold and silver ornaments. These people also traded muslin from India, metal from Africa, silk from China, iron from Greece.

Social and Cultural System – In Rome, families were united. The members of the family had to obey the orders of their head. They believed more in spirits than in gods. Their main gods were Jupiter (god of peace), Mars (god of war), Venus (goddess of love), Vesta (god of fire), Apollo (god of music and art).

Chinese civilization

The development of Chinese civilization is around 3000 BC. is believed to be around. The rise of this civilization occurred around the rivers Siqiang, Hwang Hwo and Wang Hwo. Fu-Si was the first emperor of China. He taught the Chinese to build houses, hunt, raise animals, etc. Shen-nung, the second emperor of China, taught the Chinese how to farm. The third emperor of China, Huang Ti, united China and brought the empire to the pinnacle of progress.

Means of knowing Chinese civilization

  1. Mythology
  2. Bhuching and Bhiching (poetry collection) by Confucius.
  3. Palaeolithic Remains
  4. bone record
  5. pottery

1. Governance system – In China, the king was called ‘Wang’. He was the greatest judge and priest. People considered him as their father and worshiped him as God’s son.

Council of Ministers – Wang formed the Council of Ministers for governance work consisting of four ministers who advised the king. Apart from this, there was also a council of six members. For example, Public Service Committee, Goods and Finance Committee, Sanskar and Utsav Committee, War and Defense Committee, Penal and Justice Committee and Public Interest Committee.

Provincial administration – Two or three ‘hin’ (group of villages) formed a ‘fu’ which was similar to a province. Their administration was run by a judge and a governor.

2. Economic condition – The people of China used to do agriculture and animal husbandry. Millets, rice, wheat and fruits were cultivated here. The fertile land was cultivated by nine families collectively known as the Chingtian system.

Industry – The main occupation of the people of China was silk industry. Some people also did fishing business. The people of China considered changing their occupation to be a sin.

Trade and Commerce – China has developed a lot in the field of trade. Emperor Shi Huang Ti laid a network of roads for trade. There were associations of merchants who used to get them, tobacco, glass, precious stones from abroad and sent Chinese pottery, gunpowder and cards abroad.

3. Social system – According to the Chinese, Panku, the creator of the world, created four classes of society. The first class was of Mandarins. It was attended by scholars, teachers, persons with higher education. The second class was the farmers, the third class was the artisans, the fourth class was the merchants.

4. Religious system – The scholars of China were monotheistic and the people were polytheistic. Here nature was worshipped. Their chief gods were Yang (the god of the sky), China (the god of the wind and earth). The Chinese believed in witchcraft in the form of ghosts and omens. 6th century BC In India, Buddhism also spread here a lot.

Maya civilization

500 BC in the south of the continent of North America. And the Maya civilization flourished between 1000 AD. Well this civilization dates back to 4000 BC. is old. This civilization was spread in modern Guatemala, Belize, southeast Mexico and the western region of Honduras and El Salvador. Tikal, Kalkmul, Kopan and Palenke were the main ruling dynasties here. The houses of this civilization were made of wood and umbrellas were made of palm leaves. The main features of this civilization are grand architecture, fine arts, writing arts, astronomy and calendar etc.

Means of knowing the history of Maya civilization

  1. Antiquities, pottery, carvings, artifacts and glyphs from the excavations of cities located in the Maya civilization
  2. The Works of Rasitheer, Ancient Maya: New Perspectives
  3. Maya Books or Codices

Political System – In this civilization the heads of the states were known as ‘real men’ or ‘Hellec Unique’. His position was hereditary. Under these chiefs were the chieftains of the cities called Batabob. Batabob looked after the administration of his city. You also used to lead the army when needed.

Cultural and Religious System – Almanac of Maya Civilization 3114 BC This calendar was started after every 394 years as the end of a period called Baktun. The images of the deities were made with gilded masks and they were worshiped in temples. Sacrifices were also offered to please the gods. Here cities and states had their own deities.

Economic system – The main work of the people was agriculture and animal husbandry. These people used to grow crops like wheat, barley, gram, sugarcane, coconut etc. and along with this they reared cows and goats. The Maya built wide roads known as ‘skeb’ or ‘scabob’. Farmer’s houses were kutcha while Batabob’s houses used beautifully carved wood. In the Maya civilization, the work of making ornaments in boats, cotton clothes, copper bells, swords was done.


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