Major Civilization’s of the Ancient World Class 10 History Chapter 2 Question Answer – India and World HBSE Solution

Class 10 History BSEH Solution for Chapter 2 Major Civilization’s of the Ancient World Question Answer for Haryana board. CCL Chapter Provide Class 1th to 12th all Subjects Solution With Notes, Question Answer, Summary and Important Questions. Class 10 History mcq, summary, Important Question Answer, Textual Question Answer are available of  India and World Book for HBSE.

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HBSE Class 10 History Chapter 2 Major Civilization’s of the Ancient World Question Answer for Haryana Board of India and World Book Solution.

Major Civilization’s of the Ancient World Class 10 History Chapter 2 Question Answer


Egyptian Civilization


Let’s remember again:-


Question 1. What are the means of knowing the history of Egypt?

Answer – Following are the means of knowing the history of Egypt:-

  1. Literary Instruments – Herodotus, Diodes, Menetho
  2. Archaeological Resources – Pyramids, Mausoleums, Murals, Temples, Roseto Inscriptions
  3. Modern Instruments – Adolf Irman and J. s. Brasted’s Books.

Question 2. Into how many parts can the history of Egypt be divided?

Answer – The history of Egypt can be divided into three parts:-

  1. Antiquity or Pyramid Age (3400 BC – 2160 BC)
  2. Medieval or Feudal Age (2160 BC – 1580 BC)
  3. New Age or Imperial Age (1580 BC – 650 BC)

Question 3. What were the economic activities of the Egyptians?

Answer – The economic activities of the people of Egypt were as follows-

  • Agriculture – Egypt was an agricultural country. The main crops here were wheat, barley, cotton, flax, and among the fruits were grapes, figs and dates.
  • Animal Husbandry – The Egyptians kept animals like cow, sheep, donkey, calf, monkey and chicken.
  • Industries – The people of that time were skilled in cutting stones, making ornaments and utensils, making copper and bronze weapons and making wooden furniture. People were also skilled in building boats and ships. At that time paper was made from a grass plant called papyrus.
  • Commerce and Trade – Trade in Egypt was done through the Nile River. Spices, colours, oil, powder and sandalwood were imported from Egypt, India and Arabia.

Give detail description :-


Question 1. Throw light on the administrative system of Egypt.

Answer – The administrative system of Egypt was sitting in different parts. Which are described below:-

  • Pharaoh (King) – The king was autocratic and the ruler was the ruler, all the powers of governance were in his hands.
  • Wazir – The Wazir used to help the pharaohs in the work of governance, his main function was to collect rent and keep an account of income and expenditure.
  • Council – In the court of the pharaoh, there was a separate council of old courtiers, which was called Saru. Who used to advise the kings.
  • Provincial rule – Pharaoh divided the empire into many provinces for the convenience of rule, each province was called Nom and its ruler was called Nomark.
  • Local Government – The administration of the local government was in the hands of the feudatories. The towns also had an administrative officer who was responsible for maintaining peace and collecting taxes.
  • Judiciary system – The pharaoh was the chief justice. The trial went in writing and the pharaoh would decide the case within three days. The offender was given harsh punishment.

Question 2. What are the gifts of Egypt to the world?

Answer – The following is the contribution of Egyptian civilization to the world:-

  1. Egypt gave the world 1 year and a calendar of 365 days.
  2. Invented the sun clock and water clock.
  3. Made many discoveries in the field of medicine. He prepared such a chemical coating that the dead body could be preserved for centuries.
  4. The names of 600 medicines related to various diseases have been found in an Egyptian list.
  5. Promoted the principle of monotheism.

Come try it out:-


Question 1. List and compare the ancient cities of Egypt and the modern cities.

Answer : Students try themselves with the help of their teacher.


Question 2. On the map of Egypt, mark the trading cities there.

Answer : Students try themselves with the help of their teacher.


Mesopotamian Civilization


Let’s remember again:-


Question 1. What is the meaning of Mesopotamia?

Answer – Mesopotamia is a Greek word. It is made up of two words ‘meso’ and ‘potam’. ‘Meso’ means middle and ‘potam’ means river, thus Mesopotamia literally means part between two rivers.


Question 2. What were the different civilizations that developed in the Mesopotamian region?

Answer – The civilizations that developed in the Mesopotamian region were Sumerian, Babylonian and Assyrian.


Question 3. What are ziggurats?

Answer – The high pyramid-shaped temples in the cities of Sumer are called ziggurat.


Give detail description :-


Question 1. Describe the political, economic, religious and social life of Mesopotamian civilization.

Answer – The following is the description of the political, economic, religious and social life of Mesopotamian civilization:-

Political life – In this civilization the rulers were autocratic and they had complete control over the empire. They ruled on the basis of divine principle. He was the supreme commander, judge and highest official. They used to divide the empire into many provinces and choose the governor of the province for the conduct of the rule. The governor used to collect taxes from his province, maintain peace and assist the ruler in war.

Social life – The society of that time was divided into three classes upper class, middle class and lower class. In the upper class there were kings, high officials and priests. The middle class consisted of feudal lords and merchants and the lower class consisted of slaves and farmers.

Religious Life – The people of Mesopotamia were polytheistic. They worshiped the fields, rivers, mountains. Their main deities were Anu (god of the sky), Ki (earth), Sin (moon), Tammuz (god of vegetation and agriculture), Ishtar (goddess of love), Nargal (god of plague) etc. Sacrifices were also offered to please these deities.

Economic Life – Agriculture was the main occupation of the people of this civilization. Wheat, barley, olive, cotton and grapes were cultivated in this. The people of that time were also advanced in industry and trade. Trade was done with pieces of gold, silver and copper. Here camel and goat were special among the animals. Along with beautiful wood carvings, gold, silver and precious stones were also carved here.


Come try it out :-


Question 1. Make a list of different gods and goddesses of ancient Mesopotamia and compare them with the gods of Egypt and India.

Answer – The main deities of Mesopotamian civilization were Anu (god of sky), Ki (earth), Sin (moon), Tammuz (god of vegetation and agriculture), Ishtar (goddess of love), Nargal (god of plague) etc. The people of Mesopotamian civilization worshiped various forms of nature. The people of the Egyptian civilization also worshiped various forms of nature, the greatest of which was the Sun. Which was called by many names like Re, Ra, Horus, Eman etc. After that they also worshiped the god of the Nile (Osiris), the god of the sky (Nut), the god of the moon (Sin). Whereas in India, instead of worshiping different forms of nature, human forms of God were worshipped. Along with this, the people of India believed that God is everywhere. From which we can say that all the three civilizations considered nature as their god.


Question 2. Show the ancient cities of Mesopotamia on the world map.

Answer

Map was not available in Hindi, hence it has been given in English. You can write your own name in Hindi.


Greek Civilization


Let’s remember again:-


Question 1. Into how many periods can the history of Greece be divided politically?

Answer – From the political point of view of this civilization can be divided into three periods:-

  1. Dark Ages or Homer Age (1200 BC to 800 BC)
  2. Iron Age or City State Age (800 BC to 500 BC)
  3. Hellenistic era (500 BC to 200 BC)

Question 2. What is the meaning of Bule and Agora?

Ans- The council of dignitaries of the upper class was called Buel for the advice of the king. Whereas the general meeting of the general public was called Agora.


Give detail description :-


Question 1. Describe the features of religious, social, economic and political life of Greek civilization.

Answer – The religious, social, economic and political life of Greek civilization had the following characteristics:-

Religious Life – The Greeks were polytheistic. These people worshiped natural forces and animals and they also believed in ghosts. Their main gods were Zeus (god of the sky), Apollo (the sun), Hermus (god of trade), Poseidon (god of the sea), Mars (god of war), Demeter (goddess of food) etc. The means of entertainment of these people included dancing, singing and getting animal fights.

Social Life – The society of that time was divided into 4 classes.

  1. Nobility – This class was the owner of vast land wealth and had a large number of slaves. This class used to lead in times of war.
  2. Middle class – This class included ordinary citizens who were called freemen or paroasis. This class played a role in trade and commerce.
  3. Working class – This class included workers. who were called Thets.
  4. Slave Class – This class included slaves who were called Halots.

Economic life – The trade of Greece was far and wide. The industries of the Greek people were making metal utensils in clay, making weapons, making furniture, making olive oil and making wine from grapes, etc. Agriculture was not given much attention in this civilization. Gold, silver and iron came out in the mountains of Greece.

Political life – In this civilization the rulers of the dynasties ruled. The kings were autocratic and the subjects considered the king equal to God. The king used to administer the rule in consultation with a council called ‘Bul’.

At that time there were 150 cities in Greece in which there were three types of citizens-

  1. free citizens
  2. foreign national
  3. Slave

Come try it out :-


Question 1. Show Greek cities on the world map.

Answer

 


Question 2. Make a list of Greek gods and goddesses and compare them with the gods and goddesses of contemporary civilization.

Answer – The main gods of the Greeks were Zeus (God of Sky), Apollo (Sun), Hermus (God of Trade), Poseidon (God of the Sea), Mars (God of War), Demeter (Goddess of Food) etc. The deities of contemporary civilization are considered in human form. Whereas Greek gods and goddesses were named after the natural objects that provided them facilities.


roman civilization


Let’s remember again :-


Question 1. Why is Rome called the city of seven hills?

Answer – Rome was a small village situated on seven hills on the banks of the Tiber River in central Italy. That is why it is also called the city of seven hills.


Question 2. Into how many periods can Roman civilization be divided politically?

Answer – Politically, Roman civilization can be divided into four periods:-

  1. Monarchy period (753 BC to 509 BC)
  2. Republic period (509 BC to 133 BC)
  3. The period of military leaders (133 BC to 27 BC)
  4. Imperial period (27 BC to 476 AD)

Question 3. What was the rule of the Romans like?

Answer – The administration of the Romans was centered in the hands of the Senate elected by the people. The number of members of the Senate was 300, but all these members belonged to the patrician class. Two judges were appointed by the Senate who were called ‘consuls’. Whose term was of one year. Apart from this, there were also three officials to assist in the administration – censors (tax collecting officers), aldiz (peacekeepers) and protor (judges).


Give detail :-


Question 1. Give an account of the administrative, economic, social and religious life of Roman civilization.

Answer – Following are the details of administrative, economic, social and religious life of Roman civilization:-

Administrative Life – The administration of Rome was centered in the hands of the Senate, elected by the people. The number of members of the Senate was 300, but all these members belonged to the patrician class. Two judges were appointed by the Senate, called ‘consuls’, who had a term of one year. Apart from this, there were also three officials to assist in the administration – censors (tax collectors), aldis (peacekeepers) and protors (judges). Due to non-payment of salaries to the governors, they used to collect arbitrary taxes from the public.

Economic life – The main occupation of the Roman people was agriculture and animal husbandry. They grew crops like wheat, barley, millet, grapes, olives, apples. Here people also used to do the work of making gold and silver jewelery in the textile industry, utensils industry. These people also traded muslin from India, metal from Africa, silk from China, iron from Greece.

Social and Religious Life – Families were united in Rome. The members of the family had to obey the orders of their head. They believed more in spirits than in gods. Their main gods were Jupiter (god of peace), Mars (god of war), Venus (goddess of love), Vesta (god of fire), Apollo (god of music and art).


Come try it out :-


Question 1. On the world map, show the countries associated with the Roman Empire.

Answer


Question 2. List the social classes of Roman civilization.

Answer – At this time the society was divided into two classes Patrician class and Plebian class. The patrician class consisted of Latin people who were the actual inhabitants of Rome. In this class, the people of the high and aristocratic family of Rome used to come. The second class, the Plebians, consisted of freed slaves, the landless and the poor.


Question 3. Make a list of Roman deities and compare them with the gods and goddesses of contemporary civilization.

Answer – The main gods of the Roman people were Jupiter (god of peace), Mars (god of war), Venus (goddess of love), Vesta (god of fire), Apollo (god of music and art) etc. The deities of contemporary civilization are considered in human form. Whereas Roman gods and goddesses were named after celestial bodies.


Chinese civilization


Let’s remember again :-


Question 1. What were the characteristics of the economic, social and religious history of Chinese civilization?

Answer – The following are the characteristics of the economic, social and religious history of Chinese civilization:-

1. Economic life – The people of China used to do agriculture and animal husbandry. Millets, rice, wheat and fruits were cultivated here. The main occupation of the people of China was the silk industry. Some people also did fishing business. There were associations of merchants who used to get them, tobacco, glass, precious stones from abroad and sent Chinese pottery, gunpowder and cards abroad.

2. Social life – According to the Chinese, Panku, the creator of the world, created four classes of society. The first class was of Mandarins. It was attended by scholars, teachers, persons with higher education. The second class was the farmers, the third class was the artisans, the fourth class was the merchants.

3. Religious Life – The scholars of China were monotheistic and the people were polytheistic. Here nature was worshipped. Their chief gods were Yang (the god of the sky), China (the god of the wind and earth). The Chinese believed in witchcraft in the form of ghosts and omens. 6th century BC In India, Buddhism also spread here a lot.


Question 2. How was the provincial government system of Chinese civilization?

Answer – Two or three ‘hin’ (group of villages) formed a ‘fu’ which was like a province. The provinces were also called ‘Sang’. There were small villages and towns, whose administration was run by a judge and a governor. They were appointed by the emperor.


Give detail :-


Question 1. Give an account of the characteristics of political, social, religious and economic life of Chinese civilization.

Answer – Following are the features of political, economic, social and religious history of Chinese civilization:-

1. Political Life – In China, the king was called ‘Wang’. He was the greatest judge and priest. People considered him as their father and worshiped him as God’s son.

  • Council of Ministers – Wang formed the Council of Ministers for governance work consisting of four ministers who advised the king. Apart from this, there was also a council of six members. For example, Public Service Committee, Goods and Finance Committee, Sanskar and Utsav Committee, War and Defense Committee, Penal and Justice Committee and Public Interest Committee.
  • Provincial administration – Two or three ‘hin’ (group of villages) formed a ‘fu’ which was similar to a province. Their administration was run by a judge and a governor.

2. Social life – According to the Chinese, Panku, the creator of the world, created four classes of society. The first class was of Mandarins. It was attended by scholars, teachers, persons with higher education. The second class was the farmers, the third class was the artisans, the fourth class was the merchants.

3. Religious Life – The scholars of China were monotheistic and the people were polytheistic. Here nature was worshipped. Their chief gods were Yang (the god of the sky), China (the god of the wind and earth). The Chinese believed in witchcraft in the form of ghosts and omens. 6th century BC In India, Buddhism also spread here a lot.

4. Economic life – The people of China used to do agriculture and animal husbandry. Millets, rice, wheat and fruits were cultivated here. The main occupation of the people of China was the silk industry. Some people also did fishing business. There were associations of merchants who used to get them, tobacco, glass, precious stones from abroad and sent Chinese pottery, gunpowder and cards abroad.


Come try it out :-


Question 1. List the major rivers that played a role in the rise of Chinese civilization and show them on the map.

Answer – Major rivers that played a role in the rise of Chinese civilization:-

  • siqiang
  •  hwang hwa
  • wang hou

Students try the map themselves with the help of their teacher.


Question 2. Compare the main features of Confucianism and Buddhism.

Answer : Confucius was a Chinese philosopher. According to him goodness is a natural quality of man and this quality is obtained from God. To act according to this nature is to respect God’s will and not to act according to it, what is God to do now.

Buddhism does not believe in God and the authenticity of the Vedas. He considers Varna according to guna and karma. He places great emphasis on non-violence and protection of animals.


Maya civilization


Let’s remember again :-


Question 1. The Maya civilization was spread in the areas of?

Answer – This civilization was spread in modern Guatemala, Belize, southeast Mexico and the western region of Honduras and El Salvador.


Question 2. Which is considered the best era of Maya civilization?

Answer – The best era of Maya civilization was 500 BC. It is believed to be between 1000 AD. The Maya civilization greatly developed and flourished during this time.


Let’s consider :-


Question 1. Describe the characteristics of political, economic, religious and social life for the Maya civilization.

Answer – Following are the features of political, economic, religious and social life of Maya civilization:-

Political life – In this civilization the heads of the states were known as ‘real men’ or ‘Hellec Unique’. His position was hereditary. Under these chiefs were the chieftains of the cities called Batabob. Batabob looked after the administration of his city. You also used to lead the army when needed.

Economic life – The main work of the people was agriculture and animal husbandry. These people used to grow crops like wheat, barley, gram, sugarcane, coconut etc. and along with this they reared cows and goats. In the Maya civilization, the work of making ornaments in boats, cotton clothes, copper bells, swords was done.

Religious Life – Almanac of the Maya Civilization 3114 BC This calendar was started after every 394 years as the end of a period called Baktun. The images of the deities were made with gilded masks and they were worshiped in temples. Sacrifices were also offered to please the gods. Here cities and states had their own deities.

Social life – Maya people built wide roads which were known as ‘skab’ or ‘scabob’. The houses of the farmers were kutcha. Those were called ‘no’. Whereas in the houses of Batabob, beautifully carved wood was used.


Come try it out :-


Question 1. Mark the places associated with the Maya civilization on the map of America.

Answer : Students try themselves with the help of their teacher.


Question 2. Compare the calendar of Maya civilization with that of Sumerian civilization.

Answer : Students try themselves with the help of their teacher.


 

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