Mughal Emperors and their Early Resistance Class 8 History Chapter 1 Notes – Our Bharat III HBSE Solution

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HBSE Class 8 History Chapter 1 Mughal Emperors and Their Early Resistance notes for Haryana Board of Our Bharat III Book Solution.

Mughal Emperors and Their Early Resistance Class 8 History Chapter 1 Notes

Babur laid the foundation of the Mughal dynasty in 1526 AD. But the Mughals had to face stiff resistance from the local Indian powers from the very beginning. In 1527 AD, Rana Sangram Singh resisted Babur in the battle of Khanwa. Babur’s successor Humayun was expelled from India by Sher Shah Suri. Hemchandra Vikramaditya tried to re-establish the Hindu empire by defeating the Mughals from Delhi and Agra. Rani Durgavati and Maharana Pratap did not accept the suzerainty of the Mughals. Maharana Pratap remained a formidable challenge to Akbar throughout his life. In the present chapter, we will make a detailed study of the Mughal emperors and the initial resistance against them, especially Hemchandra Vikramaditya, Rani Durgavati and Maharana Pratap.

In 1526 AD, the political condition of India was not good. India was divided into small states. The rulers of these states were jealous of one another and kept fighting, which was taken advantage of by Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur, the descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan. Babur laid the foundation of the Mughal dynasty in India by defeating the Afghan Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi of Delhi in the first battle of Panipat (1526 AD). The rulers of this dynasty ruled over Delhi for a long time.

Mughal Emperors

  1. Babur (1526-1530 AD)
  2. Humayun (1530-1540 AD and 1555-1556 AD)
  3. Akbar (1556-1605 AD)
    4.Jahangir (1605-1627 AD)
  4. Shah Jahan (1627-1658 AD)
  5. Aurangzeb (1658-1707 AD)
  6. Successive eleven Mughal rulers (1707-1857 AD)

Who were Mughals? The Mughals were originally from Central Asia. They are considered to be a mixture of Turk and Mongol race. The Mughals spoke the Chagatai language, which was a dialect of Turkey. After being defeated by the Uzbegs, Babur turned to India.

1. Babur (1526-1530 AD): Babur was the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India. He was a resident of Uzbekistan. Babur made five attacks on India between 1519 AD and 1526 AD. His fifth attack was on Delhi. In this war he defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and laid the foundation of the Mughal dynasty. This war was fought in the field of Panipat in 1526 AD In this war Babur used cannons and Tulugama warfare system for the first time in India After this war, Babur had to fight with Rana Sanga and Hasan Khan Mewati in the battle of Khanwa in 1527 AD and Babur won the war by resorting to jihad. After this Babur strengthened the foundation of the Mughal dynasty by winning the battles of Chanderi (1528 AD) and Ghaghra (1529 AD).

Rana Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga): Seeing Babur establishing roots in India, Rana Sanga (1482-1528 AD), the most powerful Hindu ruler of that period, challenged him in battle. Rana formed of a federation of many Indian kings, including Medini Rai of Chanderi, Hasan Khan Mewati of Mewat and the Afghans who were defeated by Babur at Panipat. Babur declared the Muslims supporting Rana Sanga as kafirs. The two armies came face-to-face on March 16, 1527 AD, near Khanwa, in the Bharatpur district of Rajasthan. Rana Sanga uprooted the Mughals. Rana Sanga had to leave the battle field after he fell unconscious from the wounds. Seeing the courageous resistance of the Rajputs, Babur neither pursued! him nor could he muster up the courage to attack the Mewar region.

Veer Mohan Singh Mandhar of Haryana: Mohan Singh Mandhar belonged to Kaithal district of Haryana. His life was spent in struggle. He inflicted heavy damage to the Mughals sent by Babur who surrounded his village. Babur then sent his warlords, Tarsam Bahadur and Naurang Beg, who had fought at Panipat, with a large army. The Mughals, who had heard the stories of Mohan Singh’s valour, had already made a plan to cheat him. The Mughals divided the army into three parts. When the villagers were busy in the war, Babur’s soldiers came from behind and burnt the whole village. Mohan Singh was coming back towards the village when he saw the village burning. In an attempt to save his people, Mohan Singh was imprisoned. On that day, thousands of men, women and children were imprisoned by the royal army and the prisoners along with Mohan Singh were taken to Delhi. Babur ordered them to be sentenced to death. but at the same time also said that if they accept Islam, their punishment will be forgiven. Mohan Singh did not accept Islam and was put to death.

Hasan Khan Mewati : After the victory at Panipat, Babur persuaded Hasan Khan Mewati in the name of Islam, but the name of religion could not per- suade Hasan Khan Mewati. His patriotism remained supreme. Hasan Khan Mewati, along with Rana Sanga, opposed Babur in the battle of i Khanwa on March 16, 1527 AD. When -Rana Sanga was injured by an arrow and fell unconscious on his elephant, Hasan Khan Mewati led the army and attacked Babur fiercely. Meanwhile, cannon ball hit him and he sacrificed his life for the country.

2. Humayun (1530-1540 AD and 1555-1556 AD): In 1530 AD, while sitting on the throne, Humayun had many difficulties in the form of Afghans, Rajputs and his own relatives. He was unstable in nature and was addicted to opium. A qualified Afghan general, Sher Shah Suri, defeated him in the wars of Chausa and Kannauj and drove him out of India. After 15 years of exile, he again captured Delhi in 1555 AD, after the Sur empire had weakened. He died in 1556 AD by falling down the stairs.

Sher Shah Suri: With in ten years of Humayun’s accession, Sher Shah Suri defeated him and drove him out of India. Sher Shah Suri was a capable general and an efficient administrator. He had a feeling of hatred towards the Mughals. He knew the weaknesses of the Mughals very well. He defeated Humayun in the battles of Chausa in 1539 AD and Kannauj in 1540 AD and forced him to leave India. The Mughals remained missing from the map of India from 1540 AD to 1555 AD, i.e., for 15 years  due to the resistance of Sher Shah Suri. After defeating Humayun, Sher Shah had to face stiff resistance from the Rajput rulers of Raisin, Marwar and Kalinjar. Sher Shah died on May 22, 1545 AD in a gunpowder explosion in the Battle of Kalinjar. He ruled from 1540 AD to 1545 AD. During his reign, he built roads and sarais, and carried out many reforms in the currency and postal system and also carried out many reforms in the revenue system.

3. Akbar (1556-1605 AD): Akbar was the son of the Mughal Emperor Humayun and Hamida Banu Begum. He was born in 1542 AD when his father was wandering here and there. Akbar was born in the Rajput princely state of Amarkot. He ascended the throne in 1556 AD after the death of his father. In the beginning, he encountered the great warrior Hemchandra Vikramaditya of India in 1556 AD in the field of Panipat. Luck was in favour of Akbar and he won the war. After that too, the brave Rani Durgavati fought against Akbar fiercely and Maharana Pratap of Mewar fought with Akbar throughout his life and never accepted Akbar’s subjection. By following the policy of religious tolerance, Akbar abolished the pilgrimage and Jaziya tax and banned the practice of making slaves of prisoners of war. Similarly, by establishing a liberal and friendly relationship with the Rajputs through a policy, the Mughal dynasty strengthened their rule and established a vast empire.

Resistence of Akbar

The opposition to Mughal rule started soon after its establishment. Babur was opposed by Rana Sanga, Hasan Khan Mewati and Medini Rai. Akbar was opposed by Hemchandra, Durgavati and Rana Pratap. Later, opposing the bigotry of Aurangzeb, the Marathas Rajputs, Jats, Satnamis, Sikhs and Bundelas overthrew the Mughal dynasty all over the country. The struggles of Hemchandra, Durgavati and Rana Pratap against Akbar are described in the following pages:

Hemchandra Vikramaditya

Hemchandra Vikramaditya, the main hero of the Second Battle of Panipat, was the only Hindu king after Mughal rule in Delhi for nearly three centuries, who ascended the throne of Delhi in the sixteenth century. Born in an ordinary family, he became the Prime Minister and commander-in-chief on the strength of his knowledge valour and talent. He won twenty-two wars in his life and sacrificed his life by doing his utmost throughout the life to maintain the unity and integrity of the country. The court poet of Akbar, Abul Fazal also praised Hemu in his book, ‘Akbarnama’.

Hemchandra Vikramaditya was born in the village of Machheri, near Alwar, Rajasthan in 1501 AD in the house of Sant Puran Das. After some time Hemu’s family settled in Qutubpur in Rewari. Here, Hemu got education in Sanskrit, Hindi, Persian and Arabic. He had been fond of wrestling and horse riding since childhood. Rewari was a major trading centre in those days and it was a major market for traders from Iraq and Iran. Hemu started the trade of gunpowder called ‘Shore’ and played an important role in supplying the same to Sher Shah Suri.

Hemu as Prime Minister and Commander: Sher Shah Suri, seeing Hemu’s stature and ability, admitted him into his army. After Sher Shah’s death on May 22, 1545 AD, his son Islam Shah succeeded him. Islam Shah recognized Hemu’s administrative ability and appointed him his advisor for business and finance related tasks and later, pleased with Hemu’s work, made him head of the intelligence department. After the death of Islam Shah in 1552 AD, his twelve-year-old son was made ruler, but Adilshah took over the reins after assassinating him three days later.

Adilshah was a debauch, drunkard and weak ruler. Adilshah gave Hemu all the responsibilities of governance and made him prime minister and chief commander of the army. Most of the Afghan chieftains had also revolted against Adilshah, but Hemchandra showed amazing valour by defeating many adversaries and protected Adilshah’s kingdom. After that, Hemu was sent by Adilshah to Bengal. Taking advantage of Hemu’s absence, Humayun’s army captured Delhi and Agra. Meanwhile, Humayun died on January 27, 1556 AD.

Hemu’s coronation and his declarations: After the Mughal army took control of Delhi and Agra, Adilshah fled to Chunar and sent Hemchandra to fight. Hemu defeated the Mughal governor of Agra, Sikandar Khan Uzbeg. He marched towards Delhi with a large army. At that time, the Governor of Delhi, Tardikhan Beg was horrified to hear the name of Hemu and requested Akbar to send a huge army immediately. Akbar immediately sent a large army under the leadership of the ablest commander Pir Mohammad. This great decisive battle of Indian history took place on October 6, 1556 AD at Tughlakabad. Hemu fought with great courage and valour and pushed back the Mughal soldiers. Nearly three thousand Mughal soldiers were killed and Tardibeg fled from the field. Hemu won this battle. Finally, on October 7, 1556 AD, the day of victory in Indian history came when the Hindu empire was established on the throne of Delhi after hundreds of years of slavery. Hemu’s accession to the throne took place in the old fort of Delhi with Vedic rituals. He was given the title of Vikramaditya for winning consecutive wars. Of course, it was a day of great glory for any Indian. Hemchandra’s fame has spread far and wide. Seeing the bravery and valour of Hemu, Akbar is courtiers advised that it was folly to fight Hemu.

The second battle of Panipat: While it was a Victory Day in Delhi, it was a mourning day in Bairam Khan’s camp. The generals of Agra, Sambalpur and other places had refused to fight against Hemu and were advised to return to Kabul, but Bairam Khan was in favour of battle with Hemu.

On November 5, 1556 AD, Hemu got the news that the Mughal army had reached the plains of Panipat, Hemu also reached the plains of Panipat with his entire army and surrounded the Mughal army and attacked with full force. Hemu was riding on his beloved elephant “Hawai”, raising the morale of the soldiers by challenging the enemy. Akbar stayed in his camp eight miles away from this battle field so that he might be taken. to Kabul if the battle was lost. Hemu himself was leading his army with his valour and courage and he uprooted the feet of the Mughal army. Hemu’s fear had been stuck in Akbar’s army. Hemu continued to advance when an arrow was blown into Hemu’s left eye, and he fainted and fell from his elephant. Hemu’s victory turned into defeat. Thus, an arrow helped the Mughals to strengthen their feet again.

Hemu was arrested and brought before Akbar and was beheaded. Akbar assumed the title of Ghazi (killer of infidels). Hemu’s severed head was hung at the Delhi gate of Kabul and the torso at a door outside the old fort of Delhi to instil fear in the hearts of the people. Bairam Khan ordered the mass killing of opponents and Hemu’s relatives and close Afghan supporters were executed. The tomb of Hemu is situated in the village Saudapur (Panipat).

Hemchandra Vikramaditya won 22 battles and ruled Delhi for 29 days. The tradition of valour was carried forward by Rani Durgavati, Maharana Pratap, Veer Shivaji and Guru Govind Singh. He was like a comet in India’s sky, which shone, dazzled, blazed and merged into infinity.

Rani Durgavati

India is a country of brave men and women. This holy land has not only given birth to mighty warriors but has also given birth to many women who contributed equally in making this country independent, protecting religion, culture and overthrowing foreign rule. One such brave woman was the legend, ‘Rani Durgavati’ of Garhmandla who held the sword in her hand and sacrificed her life in the end while fighting and defeating the Mughals several times to protect her religion, culture and honour.

Rani Durgavati was born on October 5, 1524 AD, in Kalinjar fort in Banda, Uttar Pradesh. Her father was the famous Rajput Chandel Emperor Kirti Singh and Rani Durgavati was his only child. She was a beautiful, gentle, humble, capable and courageous girl. Filled with bravery and courage, Durgavati had achieved skill in firearms, archery, horse riding and fighting during her childhood. Along with fighting skills, Durgavati also loved to read and listen to heroic and courageous stories. She had learned all the work of the state by staying with her father Kirti Singh and she used to help in his work as well. The father was proud of his daughter’s all-round development. Rani Durgavati’s fame spread all around due to her name, intelligence, courage, bravery and beauty.

Impressed by her valour, courage and intelligence, King Sangram Singh of the Gondwana Empire married Durgavati to his son Dalpat Shah, and made Durgavati his daughter-in-law. After one year of marriage, Durgavati gave birth to a son named Veer Narayan. After the death of Maharaja Sangram Singh, Dalpat Shah was made the ruler of Gondwana, but unfortunately Dalpat Shah died at an early age. Her son Veer Narayan was crowned and declared the heir of the kingdom and she herself started governing as the patron.

Rani Durgavati’s administration and public welfare work: Rani Durgavati was a skilled administrator. She took an active part in the administration and used to go to the court in military garb. Under her leadership, the state of Gondwana prospered. People become prosperous and rich. The queen built monasteries, wells and dharamshalas for the welfare of the public. She made Adhar Taal in the name of her Diwan Adhar Singh, Cheri Taal in the name of Ramcheri, a maid of childhood, and an Haathi Taal in the name of dear elephant Sarman. She freed the people from evil practices like human sacrifice, child marriage, pardapratha, sati system and casteism.

Resistance of Durgavati: The Mughal rulers of Delhi were cheating, looting, raping, kidnapping and torturing people in north-central India. How could Gondwana be saved from the sight of vultures? Sultan Baz Bahadur of Malwa also attacked the Gondwana kingdom twice but was defeated in both the battles. The kingdom of Rani Durgavati spread to the borders of Rewa and Malwa. Rewa was under Asaf Khan, the Subedar of Akbar and Malwa was under Adham Khan. Asaf Khan provoked Akbar against Durgavati Akbar got into the words of Asaf Khan and he ordered Asaf Khan to attack Gondwana in 1564 AD. In those days this state was also known by the name of Garh Katanga. According to Abul Fazal, the boundaries of this state extended from Rattanpur in the east to Raisingh in the west and from Rewa in the north to the edge of the Deccan Plateau in the south. The invading Mughal army consisted of fifty thousand infantry and cavalry, while Rani Durgavati’s army consisted of twenty thousand soldiers and one thousand elephants. Durgavati stopped the attackers from moving forward until she was injured. She fought bravely for two days. She later stabbed herself to protect her honour. The Mughal army captured the capital of Gondwana. Veer Narayan, the child ruler of Gondwana, also fought valiantly till he sacrificed his life. Asaf Khan received a large amount of plunder from Gondwana. He found gold, silver coins, gold utensils, gems, pearls, sculptures, animal figures made of gold and other rare items in huge quantities. The brave Durgavati remained an idol for generations to come. She sacrificed her life for her country, religion and honour as per her name Durga. No other ruler of that dynasty got as much fame as Durgavati earned in the history of the Gond dynasty. Even today, many folk songs are sung in his memory like:

When Durgavati went to the battle field with two swords in her hand, The earth shook and the sky moved when the swords came into action, Her face was red like copper, her eyes were fiery, She held the bridles with her teeth, with two swords in her hands.

Maharana Pratap

The name of the great warrior Maharana Pratap, the pride of the Sisodia Rajput dynasty, who fought Akbar in spite of limited means, till his last breath to save Mewar. He refused to submit to Akbar as a king. He is recorded in history for his bravery and immense patriotism. He completely destroyed the perception of the invincibility of Mughals army and inspired all the Rajput kings to protect the country, religion and culture. His life is a saga of struggle. There was no rest for him in his life.

Maharana Pratap was born on May 9, 1540 AD (Jyeshth 3, Vikram Samvat 1597) to Maharana Udai Singh in Kumbhalgarh, (Rajasthan). His mother’s name was Jaivantabai Songara. His childhood name was Kika. Since childhood, Maharana Pratap was brave and determined. He was also very interested in learning from general education to sports and weapon making. He gave more importance to respect and freedom than wealth.

After the death of his father, he was coronated at Gogunda on February 28, 1572 AD at the age of 32. The Rajput kings of Ajmer, Bundi, Jaipur and other places were friends of Akbar. Such a situation was discouraging, but he was not depressed. He called his main chieftains and took an oath to make the whole Mewar state independent, making Kumbhalgarh and Gogunda the centres. He declared that he would have no rest in his life until he hoisted the flag at Chittor. He vowed that he would abandon the utensils of gold and silver and eat only on the plates of leaves; he would not get his hair cut; and he would sleep on earth. All the chieftains also took an oath with him. Maharana Pratap increased his power while living in the hills by organising common people.

Do you know? Bappa Raval (8th century) established Sisodiya dynasty of Mewar ruler of Sisodiya dynasty of Mewar kingdom.

Sisodiya dynasty of Mewar kingdom

Name of Ruler        Period

Hammir Singh    1326-1364 AD
Kshetra Singh     1364-1382 AD
Lakha Singh    1382-1421 AD
Mokal Singh       1421-1433 AD
Rana Kumbha     1433-1468 AD
Uday Singh-I    1468-1473 AD
Rana Raimal    1473-1508 AD
Rana Sanga      1508-1527 AD
Uday Singh-II   1540-1572 AD
Maharana Pratap   1572-1597 AD

During the rule of Maharana Pratap, Akbar kept most of the Rajput kings under him as part of his diplomacy. At such a time, Maharana Pratap had only two options: to accept the subjugation of the imperial, cruel and cunning Akbar or to struggle for the independence of India. Maharana Pratap took the path of struggle. Akbar was afraid of Maharana Pratap’s bravery, valour and pledge. Therefore, instead of directly attacking Maharana Pratap, he made his relatives and Rajputs around Mewar attack him. Akbar tried several times to subdue Maharana Pratap. For this, he also sent Raja Man Singh of Jaipur to meet Maharana Pratap, but the self-respecting patriot Maharana Pratap refused to meet him. He was of the opinion that Raja Man Singh had established a relationship with the Yavans in his greed for money and prestige. They could not taint the lineage of their revered Bappa Rawal by meeting such a money-greedy king. This led Man Singh to vow to take revenge. Man Singh reached Delhi and provoked Akbar against Maharana Pratap.

Battle of Haldi Ghati: The battle of Haldi Ghati is the immortal saga of Indian history. Akbar failed to subdue Maharana Pratap despite several attempts. Pratap had now feared that Akbar would attack Mewar with full force and this is exactly what happened. Akbar sent Raja Man Singh and Rana’s rebellious brother Shakti Singh to attack Mewar.

Akbar wanted to capture Mewar’s valuable minerals and the way through Mewar for trade. Akbar also feared that if Rana Pratap was successful then other Rajput kingdoms would follow him. Rana Pratap also believed that if he was successful in his aim, the Rajputs would gain confidence in him and they would also follow him.

Here Maharana Pratap also reached Haldi Ghati with his army. On June 18, 1576 AD, a battle started at Haldi Ghati. Pratap was accompanied by Rawat Kisandas, Bhim Singh Dodia, Ramdas Medatia, Bhamashah, Jhala Mann and Bhil chieftain Rana Punja etc. The Bhils were present with arrows at the entrance of the valley at Chandaval. The descendant of Afgan ruler Sher Shah Suri, Hakim Khan Sur was also in his army. He was appointed commander of the army. A fierce battle ensued between the two armies at Haldi Ghati. The Mughal army became disillusioned by Maharana Pratap’s indomitable courage and enthusiasm for his army. The Mughal historian Badayuni admitted that the velocity of attack of the Mewar army was so intense that the Mughal soldiers saved lives by running from the battle field. Hakim Khan led Sur Haraval (the front row of the army). He was the head of the arsenal of Mewar. He sacrificed his life in the battle of Haldi Ghati and became immortal. Maharana Pratap was heading forward killing Mughal soldiers. Just then, he attacked Man Singh with his spear but Man Singh was saved. His elephant escaped with him. In this struggle, Pratap’s beloved horse Chetak was injured.

Rana Punja was a brave Bhil chieftain, who fought with his Bhil army at Haldi Ghati. Pratap treated him as brother and gave the honour of ‘Rana’.

When Pratap was surrounded by enemy soldiers he was not upset. He showed great courage, which confused the Mughal army. Now, Maharana Pratap tried to turn the battle towards the hills rather than the plains. Meanwhile, Jhala Mann engaged the Mughal army and sacrificed his life. At the same time, two Mughal chieftains followed Maharana Pratap. When Shakti Singh saw this, he killed both the Mughals and embraced his brother.

In this battle, the morale of the Mughal soldiers was so broken that they did not have the courage to chase Pratap’s army. Maharana Pratap was deeply saddened at the death of his beloved horse. A platform built in Chetak’s memory is still a testament to his loyalty.

Consequences of the Battle of Haldi Ghati: After the battle of Haldi Ghati, Pratap’s leadership strengthened the faith of the public. Now Pratap has become famous as Veer Shiromani Poets began to write about Maharana Pratap’s bravery. Women sang songs of his valour. The feeling of self-respect was starting to rise among the countrymen. People were freed from the shackles of slavery and started dreaming of freedom. Pratap’s valour was being depicted from place to place through theatrical versions. Looking at the difficult and struggling life of Rana, those Rajput kings who had accepted the subjection of the Mughals also began to feel embarrassed. Such rulers now began to think to cooperate with Maharana Pratap. Meanwhile, Bhamashah, the minister of Pratap’s ancestors, met him and handed over all his wealth to him.

Akbar sent Shahbaz Khan, Abdur Rahim and Jagannath Kushwaha to fight against Pratap, but all of them had to face defeat. Now Pratap has adopted an aggressive policy rather than a defensive one. In October, 1582 AD, Pratap attacked Diver, the main police station of the Mughals. Sultan Khan, the leader of the Mughal army, called the Thanedar’s of seventeen police stations nearby had to lose his life. Due to this the Mughal army had to flee from there. After this Pratap took control of all the nearby Mughal police stations including Kumbhalgarh.

Due to the repeated failure of the Mughal army to subdue Maharana Pratap, Akbar no longer had the courage to send an army against Pratap. Now Pratap made Chavand the new capital and started organising the neighbouring rulers. Gradually, the Rajput kings started cooperating with Maharana Pratap. Maharana Pratap, under his aggressive policy, recovered the forts which his father Maharana Udai Singh had lost to Akbar. While fighting with the Mughal army for twenty-five years and not getting rest due to excessive struggle in life. Maharana Pratap’s body had become dilapidated. He breathed his last on January 19, 1597 AD at the age of 57. Even today the ruins of his palaces and the Haveli of Bhamashah can be seen in Chavand. There is a memorial site for Pratap in Badoli village near Chavand.

Ideal Personality of Maharana Pratap : Maharana Pratap was loved by the public due to his personality and creativity. Pratap gave affection like a father to the families of the heroes who died in wars. Pratap returned the imprisoned Mughal women safely and gave the message of women’s respect and protection. He developed the techniques of environmental protection, water conservation and the construction of reservoirs. In order to lead a cultured life, he got a book like ‘Vyavhar Adarsh’ written. The ‘Rajyabhishek Paddhati’ (Coronation Method) written by Pratap became the model for the Indian rulers.

Maharana Pratap patronised music, sculpture and painting. He protected the metal mines for the prosperity of the country. He gave respect to all the sects. He gave the message of harmony by giving respect to the chiefs of the tribe. Temples like Harihar near Udaipur show the unity of Shaivism and Vaishnavism during his period. In this way, we see that patriotism, harmony of all religions, tolerance, compassion, struggle for independence, adherence to policy ideals, respect for human rights and women, environment and water conservation and respect to the masses are the evidence of the greatness of Maharana Pratap.

4. Jahangir (1605-1627 AD): After the death of Akbar in 1605 AD, Salim ascended the throne as Jahangir. He was very luxuriant by nature. His royal harem had twenty wives and several concubines. He was very egoistic and was always surrounded by sycophants. He wanted to become emperor in his father’s time. He got Abul Fazal killed. Jahangir’s beloved wife was Nur Jahan and the influence of Nur Jahan on governance was visible in his every decision. Jahangir died in 1627 AD. He executed the fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev. After that, the son of Arjun Dev and the sixth Guru of Sikhs Shri Hargobind Singh organised the Sikhs as a military power.

5. Shah Jahan (1627-1658 AD): Jahangir’s son Shah Jahan ascended the throne in 1628 AD. He was very ambitious and had revolted during his father’s time to become the ruler. Shah Jahan lacked tolerance. He religiously adhered to Islamic customs. In his time, temples in Banaras, Prayag, Kashmir and Gujarat were demolished. Raja Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur and Raja Jaisingh of Jaipur were his mansabdars. Although he did not remove Hindus from positions, but did not give them high positions either. In 1657 AD, Shah Jahan fell ill due to which the war of succession started among his four sons Dara, Shuja, Murad and Aurangzeb. Shah Jahan wanted to place Dara Shikoh on the throne who was religiously tolerant and generous. He had translated the Upanishads into Persian but Aurangzeb defeated all his brothers and killed them, put his father in prison, and became emperor.

6. Aurangzeb (1658-1707 AD): Aurangzeb became emperor in 1658 AD by winning the war of succession and imprisoning his father. He was a staunch Sunni Muslim. He reversed Akbar’s tolerant religious policy and Rajput friendly policy, re- imposed the pilgrimage and Jaziya tax, removed Hindus from high positions, prohibited religious fairs, broke the temples of Banaras and Mathura and built mosques there, which resulted in the revolt of Jats, Satnamis, Marathas, Rajputs, Sikhs and Bundelas. He killed the ninth Sikh Guru Tegbahadur. His policies and actions resulted in the decline of the Mughal dynasty and the Mughal empire disintegrated with his death in 1707 AD. Although the Mughals continued to rule till 1857 AD, their power remained confined to Delhi only. The subsequent eleven Mughal rulers proved weak. The Marathas emerged as a power in India in the 18th century and dominated Delhi for years.

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