CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 5 Children & Women in Sports Important Question Answer

Class 12th
Subject Physical Education
Category Important Questions

CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 5 Children & Women in Sports Important Question Answer

Q1. Define Motor Development.

Ans – motor development refers to the development of a child’s bones, muscles and ability to move around and manipulate her or his environment.

Q2. Briefly describe the domains of motor development.

Ans – There are the following 4 domains of motor development.

  1. Cognitive domain: It is concerned with intellectual development of a child.
  2. Affective domain: It is primarily concerned with emotional and social aspect of a child.
  3. Psychomotor domain: It is concerned with body movements and factors that affect movements.
  4. Physical domain: It is concerned with body changes take place during the life span.

Q3. Define Locomotor Skills.

Ans – Locomotor Skills involve the body moving in any direction from one point to another. Locomotor skills include walking, running, dodging, jumping, hopping and skipping.

Q4. What is Dynamic Posture.

Ans –  Dynamic posture is how one holds oneself when moving, For example, walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. It is usually required to form an efficient basis for movement. Muscles and non-contractile structures have to work to adapt to changing circumstances.

Q5. What is Static Posture.

Ans – Static posture is how one holds oneself when stationary or not moving, For example, sitting, standing, or sleeping. Body segments are aligned and maintained in fixed positions. This is usually achieved by co-ordination and interaction of various muscle groups which are working statically to counteract gravity and other forces.

Q6. What is meant by Knock Knees? 

Ans – Knock Knees is a knee misalignment that turns the knees inward. As a result, both knees touch or knock against each other in a normal standing posture but there is a gap of 3-4 inches between the ankles.

Q7. Write in brief the causes and symptoms of Knock Knees.

Ans – Knock Knees can develop due to an injury or infection in the knee or leg, rickets, severe lack of vitamin D and calcium, obesity, or arthritis in the knee. It is generally first noticed in early childhood, but in most cases, it usually corrects itself naturally by the time. It negatively effects walking and running and impedes other legs movement which hinder performance.  it may have symptoms like misaligned knees. They include stiff joints, knee pain and walking with a limp. Stressed ligaments and muscles can also cause pain in the hips, ankles, or feet. If only one knee is out of line, the stance may be unbalanced.

Q8. What is meant by flat foot? 

Ans – Flat foot is also known as pes planus or fallen arches. It is a condition that may be diagnosed by looking at the arch of the foot or by taking the water print test. As the name flat foot suggests, people suffering from this deformity have either no arch in their feet, or one that is very low, allowing the entire soles of the feet to touch the floor in standing position. This problem may be genetic or environmental.

Q9. What is meant by Round Shoulders? Mention a few exercises to correct it.
What do you understand by Round shoulders deformity? Suggest any four corrective measures for round shoulders.

Ans – Round shoulders is a postural deformity in which shoulders are bent forward from the ideal alignment, thereby giving a narrow curve to upper back. It leads to postural deviations such as hyperkyphosis, or hunch back and anterior head carriage, or forward head posture.

Corrective Measures for Round Shoulders –

Corrective measures for rounded shoulders is strengthening and stretching of muscles and trying to correct the imbalance of muscles by doing chest stretches, T stretch, wall stretch, Handclasp stretch and planks, pull ups, reverse shoulder stretch, etc. Yoga asanas like Chakrasana, Dhanurasana, can be useful in correcting rounded shoulders.

Q10. What is meant by Kyposis?

Ans – Kyposis is a condition of the spine where the curvature of the upper back gets exaggerated or increases. It is an exaggerated, forward rounding of the back. Kyphosis can occur due to heredity, aging, disease (arthritis, osteoporosis), malnutrition, pulling of heavy weight over a period, unstable furniture, poor postural habit, weakness in muscles etc.

Q11. What is the Lordosis? Write in brief.

Ans – Lordosis is a spinal deformity in which the angle of arc of the lower back is reduced. This leads to an increase and exaggeration of normal concavity of the lumber region of the spine. It is also known as sway back. Chronic Lordosis may lead to pain and discomfort and become more serious if left untreated.

Q12. What is meant by Scoliosis?

Ans – Scoliosis is a position in which the spine is tilted to either side of the body. It is a position of exaggerated lateral curvature or sideways curvature of the spine. In this disorder, the spine bends, twists or rotates in a way that it makes a C or an S shape.

Q13. What is meant by Bow Legs?

Ans – Bow Legs is a position of knees in which legs look like a bow, when the legs curve outward at the knees while the feet and ankles touch. Infants and toddlers often have bow legs. It may be caused due to lack of Vitamin D, Phosphorus and Calcium.

Q14. Explain the various constraints faced by women in sports. Most Important

Ans – There are the following constraints faced by women in sports –

1. Physical Constraints – Physical constraints refer to the qualities of the sports person such as the physical fitness parameters. If there is failure in any of these required parameters it results in the reduction of sports performance.

2. Physiological Constraints – If there is any dysfunction of the organs it results in reduction of sports performance. Some women have lower levels of RBCs, lower percentage of Haemoglobin, smaller or weaker heart and it circulation, smaller or weaker lungs and breathing mechanism, dysfunction of organs of endocrine system, greater body fat percentage, dominance of neither aerobic power nor anaerobic power , Menstrual disorders.

3. Psychological Constraints – Psychological constraints comprise the behavioural process such as higher level of anxiety or aggression, lack of self- confidence, achievement motivation or interest, lower self-esteem or hesitation to participate during menstrual periods.

4. Social Constraints – Social constraints refer to the behaviour of society in general and sports field in particular. During training and competition, the relationship with coaches, arena persons, training-mates, co-participants, opponents and officials during competition affects not just performance, but also participation. If there is any undue harassment or misbehaviour during this period, it results in reduction in sports performance or ultimately exit from sports participation. Lack of parental support and encouragement, and male dominant social structure also has a very negative impact on participation.

5. Religious Constraints – Religious constraints prevail in those societies who are fundamentalist and have rigid religious beliefs. They fear as society may ostracise them for going beyond the boundaries of their religion. This might also be the cause of limited participation in sports by women in India.

Q15. How has women’s participation in sports changed over the last two decades?

Ans – As time passed, India women were deprived of participation in sports for a number of reasons, despite having potential and talent. They were put on the back seat, and were not allowed to participate in sports. However, female participation and popularity in sports increased dramatically in the last quarter of the 20th century, reflecting changes that emphasize gender parity. Although the level of participation and performance can still be improved, women’s participation in sports is generally accepted and promoted today.

Q16. Write in brief the corrective measures of Bow Leg, Knock Knee and Flat Foot.

Ans – 

Corrective Measures for Bow Leg : Use of braces and modified shoes can be along with sufficient intake of balanced diet can prove to be of help. Walking on the inner edge of the feet may also help.

Corrective Measures for Knock Knee : Exercises like horse riding and keeping the pillow between the knees and standing erect for some time are the best. For most people with Knock Knees, Yoga and exercise can help realign and stabilize the knees. Performing padmasana and gomukhasana regularly can help strengthen muscles of the legs and realign the knees.

Corrective Measures for Flat Foot : Exercises like walking, standing or jumping on toes and heels in all four directions, skipping rope, strengthens the muscles of foot which help to develop the arch in the foot. Yoga asanas like Adhomukhsavasana performed in Surya Namaskar, Vajrasana and other therapeutic massages are also helpful in developing the arch.

Also Read CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Book Solution
Also Read CBSE Class 12 Important Questions (All Subjects)

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