CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 7 Physiology & Injuries in Sports Important Question Answer

Class 12th
Subject Physical Education
Category Important Questions

CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 7 Physiology & Injuries in Sports Important Question Answer

Q1. Nameirakpam Kunjarani Devi is related to which game?

Ans – Weightlifting

Q2. What is Aerobic Exercise?

Ans – Aerobic Exercise is any type of cardiovascular conditioning. It can include activities like brisk walking, swimming, running, or cycling. You probably know it as “cardio.” By definition, aerobic exercise means “with oxygen.” Your breathing and heart rate will increase during aerobic activities.

Q3. What is Anaerobic Exercise?

Ans – Anaerobic Exercise is any activity that breaks down glucose for energy without using oxygen. Generally, these activities are of short length with high intensity. The idea is that a lot of energy is released within a small period of time, and your oxygen demand surpasses the oxygen supply

Q4. What is the full form of ATP?

Ans – Adenosine Triphosphate

Q5. What are the short term effect of Exercise on Cardiovascular system?

Ans – There are the following short term effect of exercise –

  • Increase Heart Rate
  • Increase Blood Circulation
  • Increase Blood Pressure
  • Increase Stroke volume
  • Increase Cardiac input

Q6. What are the Long term effect of Exercise on Cardiovascular system?

Ans – There are the following Long term effect of exercise –

  • Increase size and strength of Heart
  • Low level of accumulation of Lactic acid
  • Decrease resting of Heart rate
  • Maintain blood pressure
  • Increase stroke volume and Cardiac volume
  • Increase in Capillaries network

Q7. Elucidate any six effects of exercise on muscular system.

Ans – 

1. Increased blood supply: During exercise, in order to match demand of fuel to muscle, the supply or concentration of blood increases in the whole body.

2. Increased muscle temperature: During exercises muscles demand energy, which comes from contracting muscles. During the process, a lot of heat energy is generated which increases the temperature of muscles.

3. Increased muscle flexibility: Due to increase in blood flow and rise in temperature, elasticity of muscles increases.

4. Accumulation of Lactate: Muscles requires oxygen. If blood supply does not provide appropriate volume of oxygen to muscles, it leads to accumulation of lactate acid in muscles which result in pain, and soreness in muscles.

5. Micro-tears in Muscle Fibres: During exercises muscle tissue is placed under stress which results in micro-tears in muscle fibres. The body responds by repairing the muscle fibres and making them larger.

6. Hypertrophy of Muscle: Scientific and systematic exercise leads to increase in thickness of muscle fibres that results in increase in muscle size

Q8. Define Stroke volume.

Ans – The volume of blood pumped during one beat (contraction) is called stroke volume

Q9. Define Bone Mass.

Ans – Bone Mass is a measure of the amount of minerals (mostly calcium and phosphorous) contained in a certain volume of bone. Osteoporosis poses a major problem with ageing, particularly among postmenopausal women.

Q10. What are the classification of sports injuries. Explain them.

Ans – Sports Injuries can be classified according to the cause of the injury:

1. Direct Injuries: They are sustained from an external force causing injury at a point of contact.
2. Indirect Injuries: It usually involves the athlete damaging the soft tissues such as ligaments tendons or muscles of the body through internal or external force.
3. Soft Tissue Injuries: Any injuries to skin muscles or ligaments are soft tissue injuries.
4. Hard Tissue Injuries: Injuries that occur in bones and cartilages.
5. Overuse Injuries: They are sustained from continuous or repetitive stress, incorrect technique or equipment or too much training.

Q11. What is a strain? Write its cause, prevention and treatment. Most Important

Ans – A strain is an injury to either a muscle or a tendon generally caused by overuse, force, or stretching. Depending on the severity of the injury, a strain may be a simple overstretch of the muscle or tendon, or it can result in a partial or complete tear. A strain could be an acute or chronic soft tissue injury that is a twist, pull or tear of a muscle or the tendon.

Cause – Strains occur suddenly (acute strain) or develop slowly over time (chronic strain). CauseIt includes lifting of heavy objects, running, jumping, throwing etc.

Prevention – Regular stretching and strengthening exercise for any kind of sport can be the preventive measure for strain.

Treatment – It can be managed by applying ice packs and maintaining the strained muscle in a stretched position. (RICE: rest, ice, compression and elevation).

Q12. What is a sprain? Write its cause, prevention and treatment. Most Important

Ans – Sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments, the fibrous tissue that connects bones in the joints. A sprain occurs when you overextend or tear a ligament while surely stressing a joint. The most common location for a sprain is in your ankle.
Cause – A sprain occurs when one overextends or tears a ligament while severely straining a joint.
Prevention – Regular stretching and strengthening exercises for any kind of sport can be the preventive measure for such kind of sports injury.

Treatment – RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation).

Q13. What is Fracture? Name the more common types of fractures and describe them. Most Important
Define Fracture and explain any four types of fracture.
Elucidate any four types of fractures.

Ans – A fracture is a break in a bone. Fractures are caused by a direct impact, such as a fall or a severe tackle. Stress fractures develop over time and are caused by overuse.

Type of Fractures –

  1. Stress Fracture – Stress fractures may occur because of overuse injuries and the failure to have adequate equipment to protect the body.
  2. Greenstick – A fracture in a young, soft bone, in which the bone bends. These fractures most commonly occur with a fall.
  3. Comminuted – A fracture in which a bone is broken, splinted or crushed into number of pieces.
  4. Transverse – Transverse fracture is when there is a straight break right across a bone.
  5. Oblique – Oblique fracture is one in which the bone breaks diagonally.
  6. Impacted – This type of fracture occurs when the broken ends of the bones are jammed together by the force of the injury.

Q14. Define First Aid.

Ans – First Aid refers to the treatment which is given to the casualty suffering from either a minor or serious illness or injury, to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery.

Q15. Write down the aims and objectives of first aid.
Describe any 2 objectives of first aid.

Ans – The basic aim and objectives of First Aid are –

  • To prepare properly for any emergent situation to avoid errors and act quickly and calmly.
  • To assess and care life-threatening conditions first
  • To minimize further injury, infection and complications
  • To make the victims comfortable as possible which enable him to save energy.
  • To transport the victim to a medical facility as per necessity.

Q16. Explain P.R.I.C.E in Detail. Most Important

Ans – P.R.I.C.E. stand form Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation.


Protect the affected area from further injury by limiting or avoiding weight-bearing through the use of crutches, a cane, or hiking poles. Partially immobilizing the injured area by using a sling, splint, or brace may also be a means of protection.


  • Stop using injured part or discontinue activity. It could cause further injury, delay healing, increase pain and stimulate bleeding.
  • Use crutches to avoid bearing weight on injuries of the leg, knee, ankle and foot.
  • Use splint for injuries of the arm, elbow, wrist and hand.


  • Ice application contracts blood vessels.
  • Helps stop internal bleeding from injured capillaries and blood vessels.
  • Hastens healing time by reducing swelling around injury.
  • Keep damp or dry cloth between skin and ice pack.
  • Do not apply ice for longer than 15 to 20 minutes at a time.
  • Apply every hour for 10 to 20 minutes.
  • Apply ice as long as pain or inflammation persists.


  • Hastens healing time by reducing swelling around injury.
  • Decreases seeping of fluid into injured area from adjacent tissues.
  • Use elasticised bandage, compression sleeve, or cloth.
  • Wrap injured part firmly.
  • Do not impair blood supply.
  • Too tight bandage may cause more swelling.
  • Wrap over ice.
  • Loosen the bandage if it gets too tight.


  • Elevate injured part above the level of heart.
  • Decreases swelling and pain.
  • Use objects and pillows.

Q17. Name any two most common injuries in sports.

Ans – Sprain and Strain

Q18. Point out physiological factor for strength.
Explain any three physiological factors determining strength.

Ans –

1. Muscle cross-sectional area: It is generally measured with girth measurement. The muscle having bigger cross-section area has more strength because larger muscles have better quality of action and myosin filaments.

2. Types of muscle fibre: There are two basic types of fibres.  (i) Slow twitch fibres  (ii) Fast twitch fibres.  Fast twitch muscle fibres lead to increase in muscle size and strength with greater explosive power. Every individual has different ratios of slow and fast twitch muscle fibres.

3. Muscle length: Persons with relatively long muscles have greater potential for developing size and strength than person with relatively short muscles.

4. Age and gender: Muscle strength declines with age due to decrease in muscle cross-sectional area. The strength changes with increase in age specially after 15 years. Men and women have similar tissues but men have bigger muscle size leading to better strength as compared to women.

Q19. Explain any 2 physiological factors, help in determining endurance.
Briefly explain any two factors determining endurance.

Ans –

1. Aerobic capacity : To perform an activity continuously energy is required by the muscles which can be supplied in the presence of oxygen. Therefore the ability or organism to maintain the adequate supply to oxygen to the working muscles for energy liberation is important for endurance performance.

2. Anaerobic capacity : The working capacity of muscle in absence of oxygen is called anaerobic capacity. more or less Anaerobic capacity is required in all kind of endurance activities.

Q20. Write a key point on cardio respiratory factors determining fitness.

Ans – 

  • Cardiorespiratory system provide energy to neuromuscular system and neuroendocrine system.
  • During exercise, the demand for energy increases and to meet the demand, oxygen is required in appropriate volume, to achieve the same.
  • The cardiovascular response to exercise is directly proportional to the demands of the skeletal muscles for Oxygen.

Q21. Explain any 2 types of bone injury with their management.

Ans – 

1. Greenstick Fracture – A fracture in a young, soft bone, in which the bone bends. For treatment of this injury, Removable splints result in better outcomes than casting in children with lorus fractures of the distal radius.

2. Oblique – Oblique fracture is one in which the bone breaks diagonally. It’s treatment depends upon the severity of the crack or break. Anti- inflammatory medication, reduction (Resetting the bone) can also help to some extent.

Also Read CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Book Solution
Also Read CBSE Class 12 Important Questions (All Subjects)

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