Federalism Class 10 Political Science Chapter 2 Important Question Answer

Class 10
Subject Political Science
Category Important Questions

Class 10 Political Science Chapter 2 Important Question Answer

Q1. Define the Federalism.
What type of Government is Federal System?

Ans – Federalism is that system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country or federation.

Q2. Describe the key features of Federalism.

Ans – Some of the key features of Federalism are as follow :

(i) There are two or more levels (or tiers) or government.

(ii) Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction.

(iii) The existence and authority of each tier/level of government is constitutionally guaranteed.

(iv) The fundamental provisions of constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by any one level of government. Such changes require approval of both the levels of government.

(v) Courts (Judiciary) have the power to interpret the constitution and powers of different levels of government if any dispute arise between different levels of government in the exercise of their respective powers.

(vi) Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.

(vii) Federal system has dual objectives : to safeguard and promote unity of the country and at the same time accommodate regional diversity.

Q3. How is Federalism practiced? Most Important

Ans – Federalism in India is practiced in three major ways, which are as follow :

  • Formation of Linguistic States: It was the first step towards democratic politics in India. The regions, boundaries, and names of states have been changed from 1947 to till date.
  • Center-state relations: Restructuring of center-state relations is another way in which federalism is practiced. If no single party gets a clear majority, the major national parties may form alliances with several parties, including several regional parties, to form the government. This has created a new culture of power sharing and respect for the autonomy of state governments.
  • Language Policy :  Hindi was recognized as the official language of the Union of India, with 21 other languages recognized as scheduled languages by the Constitution. States also have their own official language, and official work is done in the official language of the respective state

Q4. Point out one feature in the practice of Federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium. Most Important

AnsSimilar feature : India and Belgium both are example of holding together federations. In this set up a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent states and the national government.

Different feature : In India, some units of federation have unequal powers and some units have been granted special powers. But this is not prevailing in Belgium.

Q5. How many countries of the world have federal ruling system?

Ans – 25

Q6. How Federal System is formed?

Ans – Federal system is formed when two or more independent states come together on their own accord .

Q7. Mention the main characteristics of Indian Federal System. Most Important

Ans – The main characteristics of Indian Federal System are as follow :

(i) Division of Power among different levels of government.

(ii) Constitution being supreme

(iii) Written Constitution

(iv) Independent Judiciary

(v) Bi-cameral legislature

Q8. Explain the features of the third tier of government.


(i) Local self government has helped to deepen democracy in our country.

(ii) It has also increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.

Q9. What do you understand by Jurisdiction?

Ans – The area over which someone possesses legal authority. The area may be defined in terms of geographical boundaries or in terms of certain kinds of subjects.

Q10. Administration enjoy separate jurisdiction. Mention.

Ans – Within a government structure, different agencies or departments may be responsible for specific functions, and they operate within their own jurisdiction. Each entity has the authority to make decisions and enforce regulations within its defined scope, and its actions are not subject to interference by other entities unless specified by law.

Separate jurisdiction is essential to maintain order, clarity, and efficiency in the administration of laws and policies. It helps prevent overlapping responsibilities and ensures that each administrative body can focus on its designated tasks without unnecessary external interference.

Q11. Describe Gram Panchayat in brief.

Ans – Gram panchayat is the decision making body for the whole village. Each village, or a group of villages in some states, has a gram Panchayat. Gram Panchayat is a council consisting of several ward members, often called panch, and a president or sarpanch that are elected by all adult population living in that ward or village. The panchayat works under the overall supervision of the gram sabha.

Q12. A few Gram Panchayats are grouped together to form what is usually called a _________. Most Important

Ans – Panchayat samiti or block or mandal.

Q13. What is the minimum age to become a member of the Gram Panchayat?

Ans – 21

Q14. What is Panchayat Samiti ? Most Important

Ans – Panchayat Samiti is a group of gram panchayats.

Q15. Name three state in 1947, that have been changed.

Ans –  Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand.

Q16. Name three languages that are spoken in India but are not included in the table.

Ans – English, Bhojpuri and Rajasthani.

Q17. Where India conducted its Nuclear Test?

Ans – Pokhran in Rajasthan

Q18 The Chairperson of Municipal Corporation is called ________. (Mayor / Principal)

Ans – Mayor

Q19. What is the difference between Municipalities and Municipal Corporations ?

AnsMunicipalities : Local self-government bodies set up in towns are called municipalities.

Municipal Corporations : Local self-government bodies set up in big cities are called municipal corporations.

Q20. What is Gram Sabha ?

Ans – The Gram Sabha is a meeting of all adult members of the village in which people participate directly and seek answers from their elected representatives.

Q21. What do you mean by Decentralization of Power? Most Important

Ans – When power is taken away from Central and State governments and delegated to local self-government, it is called decentralization of power. It is done to solve the problems and issues at local level.

Q22. What are the advantages of Local Governments?
Explain any two achievements of the Local Self Governments in India.

Ans – (i) Local self government has helped to deepen democracy in our country.

(ii) It has also increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.

Q23. What do you mean by Coalition Government?

AnsCoalition Government : A government formed by the coming together of at least two political parties. Usually partners in a coalition form a political alliance and adopt a common programme.

Q24. Why are the linguistic states created ? What are their advantages?

Ans – Linguistic states were created to ensure that people who speak the same language lived in same states. Some states were created on such basis to recognise differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography.

eg. Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand.

Advantages of linguistic states are as follows :

(i) It has made the country more united.

(ii) It has also made administration easier.

Q25. Stats any three differences between Local Staff Government before and after the Constitutional Amendment 1992. Most Important


Before Amendment of 1992 After Amendment 0f 1992
Local self-government institutions existed, but their status and powers were not explicitly defined in the Constitution. The  Amendment provided constitutional status to Panchayats, ensuring their existence as fundamental institutions of local self-government. It also detailed the powers, composition, and functions of these institutions.
There was no constitutional provision for the reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), and women in Panchayats. The amendment mandated the reservation of seats for SCs, STs, and women in Panchayats. This was a significant step towards ensuring greater representation and participation of marginalized sections in local governance.
Decision-making and administrative powers were often concentrated at higher levels of government, limiting the autonomy of local bodies. The Amendment aimed at decentralizing powers to the Panchayats, empowering them with the authority to plan and implement schemes related to economic development and social justice. This decentralization aimed to bring governance closer to the people and enhance local development.

Q26. How the constitution was amended to make the third tier of democracy more powerful and effective?

Ans – In 1992 the Constitution was amended to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective.

(i)  Now it is constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.

(ii)  Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.

(iii)  At least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.

(iv) An independent institution called the State Election Commission has been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.

(v) The State governments are required to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies. The nature of sharing varies from State to State.

Also Read Class 10 Social Science NCERT Solution
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